Category Archives: 2004

Nummer 1


E. ROBAERT

Zestiende-eeuwse bedevaarttekens en legpenningen in enkele Brusselse en Brabantse kerken: Jan Noë de vaantjesmaker van Halle

Summary: 16th century pilgrims tokens and medals in some Brussels and Brabant  churches. Jan Noë, the flag producer from Hale (a town in Brabant).
Pilgrims’ tokens and medals were large-scale productions, sold by specialised stallholders and other 16th century salesmen. Jan Noë from Halle was, mid 16th century, an expert in this field, and one of the leading suppliers of small pilgrimage flags and medals to a great number of Brussels and Brabant churches. On the other  hand, more expensive silver tokens, ordered in smaller quantities, were still the work of a silversmith. The church   council, in the churches of which a patron saint as invoked in some typical popular devotions particularly ordered these tokens of devotion. In this study the historic evolution is outlined of the (church) medals and pilgrims’ tokens found in some churches, such as the St Peters church in Anderlecht (token of St Guido), the parish church in Machelen (token of St Gertrude), the parish church in Vorst (token of St Alena), and the St Leonard’s church in Zoutleeuw (token of St Leonard).
At that time Brussels was an important producing town of tokens of devotion, which in the town itself, as well as in other places of pilgrimage in the old duchy of Brabant, had a flourishing market.

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R. NOUWEN

Hanengevechten in België: over de geschiedenis van het dagelijkse leven en de instandhouding van levend erfgoed

Summary: Cock-fighting in Belgium: about the history of daily life and the preservation of living patrimony.
Cock-fights have had a long tradition in Belgium. Few animals had such an immense impact on the recreational world of our ancestors, a phenomenon in known to historians of daily life and most readers as well.
Most publications deal with animals bred for fighting without mentioning any specifications. Furthermore the atrocious nature of cock-fighting is emphasized. The current concern for the well-being of animals, anyway fully appropriate, is an important reason why the breeding of fighting-cocks is put in a bad light.
But this leads up to the imminent extinction of three Belgian fighting-cock races.
The author wants to attract the readers’ attention to this problem. That is why he deals with the history of cock-fighting in Western Europe, more specifically in Flanders and the North of France and he dwells on the history of the fighting-fowl as well. He ends by remarking that fighting-cocks are an essential part of our cultural  patrimony.

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W.L. BRAEKMAN

Een Gentse bundel marktliedblaadjes

Summary: A Ghent collection of Flemish broadside ballads
This interesting made-up volume of broadsides was acquired by the Ghent Univ. Libr. In the late 19th century at the public sale of the collection of F.A. Snellaert. It Contains one hundred and thirty-nine items, for the better part  unique. The broadsides also reveal the names of five market-singers whose existence is not known from other collections. This newly discovered quarto-sized volume illustrates the extent and scope of broadside ballads, mainly dated late 18th and early 19th centuries, which are still not even inventoried. It also goes to show that a full quasi-complete inventory of all existing broadside ballads (not to mention those reserved in manuscripts) is not a task the completion of which can be looked forward to in the near future.
This is why in the meantime all contributions towards this ultimate goal are welcome.
Each song of the collection analysed here is arranged alphabetically on its first line, the incipit, which is followed by the title, the melody, the length (number of stanzas and of verse) and the author and (or) singer, if available.
The article is completed by an alphabetical list of the melodies, and one of the singers.

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Category: 2004

Nummer 2


A.K.L. THIJS

Recreatie, educatie, devotie en informatie: functies van populaire lectuur (17de – 19de eeuw)

Summary: Entertainment, education, devotion, and information: function of popular reading matter (17th – 19th centuries)
Popular reading matter was the favourite reading material of ordinary people. Wether or not an author or an editor with his publication aimed at ‘popular’ readers, can often be derived from the title, distinguishing linguistic features, the degree of difficulty of the contents, the typeface, the typographical care, and – if known – the selling price. Around 1850 half of our population could not read. Yet illiterates got knowledge of the texts, namely when they were read out to them, recited, sung or retold by ‘cultural intermediaries’. A lot of books (even a lot of devotional literature) was in the first place meant for the middle and the upper classes. Undoubtedly, a great majority of the lower classes had difficulty in reading these texts because of the abstraction of the concepts dealt  with.
In this contribution we try to find out what the reading matter for the average reader looked like, and which shifts took place due to changes in the socio-economic, cultural and political field. We also track the authors’ and editors’ intentions (apart from profit seeking) of producing and distributing such reading matter. In the pre-industrial era especially popular books, song leaflets, and almanacs, for the most time having an entertaining function, were printed for a large readership. From the 19the century onwards also periodicals will fulfil a partly entertaining function. Also broadsheets and other texts by means of which the author aimed at an ideological influencing were undoubtedly often mostly appreciated by the readers of a kind of light reading for entertainment.
In the second half of the 19th century an improved spending power, the extension of suffrage, the differentiation of the political spectrum, new pedagogic views, and the increasing level of education, gradually led to the coming into being of a new-fashioned reading matter. So during the Belle Époque old newspapers, popular booklets, almanacs, song leaflets, children’s prints, and other traditional printed matter acquired the status of a curio. Part of the intelligentsia then appropriated this stuff as objects which, in their opinion, would suit well in a folkloristic or archaeological collection.

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W.L. BRAEKMAN
Bijdrage tot de studie van het raadsel: gedrukte raadsel- boekjes

Summary: Contribution to the Study of the Riddle: printed collections
In the wake of the late Renaat van der Linden book-length study of the Dutch riddle, the present paper surveys the  content and scope of six printed riddle booklets and quotes substantially from each. They date from the late sixteenth century to the end of the eighteenth century.
The earliest is schoolmaster Jacob van der Mersch’s popular collection (1593), five years later followed by an anonymous booklet printed at Haarlem. In the seventeenth century there is Jan vander Veens Raadtselen (1653) in two parts, the first of which contains 162 riddles on secular topics. This is followed by Bailliu’s  Gulden raedsel-boeck (1664) with some two hundred rhymed religious riddles. The last two collections date from the eighteenth century and are printed at Ghent: the one (1704) is the work of a clergyman, the other (1779) is an almanac with two dozen riddles in rhyme.

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Category: 2004

Nummer 3


C. DE STAELEN

Een venster op de materiële leefwereld van Elisabeth Moretus

Summary: A view on the material culture of Elisabeth Moretus
Based upon an inventory the material culture in the house ‘De Grote Lynde’ is explained and explored. The description is complemented by a housekeeping journal written by the occupant, Elisabeth Moretus in the years 1664-1675.
Both documents evoke a complementary image of the sumptuous propriety against which this 17th century Antwerp widow led her life.

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K. PYPE,

Transgressiviteit in rituelen van Vlaamse Wicca’s

Summary: Transgressivity realized within rituals of the Flemish Wiccans
Today, we witness a growing need for a personal religion. Traditional religion is considered as ignoring both the physical and spiritual realities. A response to that is modern witchcraft, known as Wiccas. The purpose of this article is to investigate transgressivity realized within rituals of the Flemish Wiccans, the modern witches living in the northern part of Belgium. First, I give an overview of Flemish modern witches, how they can be recognized/we recognize them and how their sociality is internally organized. Secondly, based on interviews and participant observation of two rituals, ‘celebration of male and female in everything’ and a ‘wiccaning’, I analyse these according to Victor Turner’s theory of ritual as a three-staged drama. The liminal character as well as the liminoid character of these stagings are explored.

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Category: 2004

Nummer 4


A. VAN DER ZEIJDEN

Traditie en Folklore: pleidooi voor een herwaardering en een nieuw leven van twee oude begrippen

Summary: Tradition and folklore. A plea for a revaluation and a new life of two old concepts
Tradition and folklore are concepts preferably avoided by serious scientists. These concepts are too much emotionally charged with the old prejudices about the supposed Germanic continuity of “traditional” popular culture. In this article I plead for a revaluation and a reintroduction of both concepts in the scientific discourse. It is a return to the origin of folklore with the aim of giving it a character of its own, and choose it, just as in the initial period, as a study-matter for investigating the ancient subject of folklore, i.e. the traditional folklore in present-day society. It is also a plea to approach in a more positive way the field of activity.
Folklorists have both these concepts ever since used for the activities of their own, namely practising, the study of folklore. And so they have bridged the gap between theory and practice, between scientific investigation and field work.

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D. CALLEWAERT

Lachen en spotten in het West-Vlaams Klankarchief

Summary: Laughing and Mocking
A series of tapes with interviews, songs and rhymes were recorded in West-Flanders between 1956 and 1975 by the folklorist Magda Cafmaeyer and have recently been digitalized and archived by the author into 37 CDs (:948 tracks or records). The ‘West-Vlaams Klankarchief’ provides a better understanding of social relations and customs in the last century. A number of songs and rhymes in the collection prove to be a perfect vehicle to ridicule e.g. political opponents, respectable institutions, outsiders and minority groups (well-to-do, celibate, single,…).

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W.L. BRAEKMAN

Een ‘Konstboecxken’ met een spotrecept door een ‘ongeleerden sottoer’ (ca. 1595)

Summary: A ‘Konstboecxken’ with a mock recipe by an unlearned, foolish physician
An anonymous booklet of fifty octavo-sized pages, lavishly illustrated with seventeen woodcuts, has not yet attracted any attention. The unique copy of this ‘kunstboecxken’, now in the Royal Library in The Hague, was printed by Peter Warnesoen at Campen about 1595.
Its content consists mainly of an unrecorded reprint of the well-known and extremely popular Sack der Consten, which has been reprinted many times since 1528, the year of its first known publication. In addition we find here seventeen recipes not occurring in any other edition of the Sack.
Its most important part, however, is an extensive pseudo-recipe cast in the form of a letter (a missive), sent by a “sottoer”, a pun on sot (fool) and doctoer or dokter (physician) to an unnamed friend afflicted with a strange illness  which is not specified.
Mock medical recipes are as rare in Dutch as they are in other languages. The present paper gives a brief survey of the known related texts up to the eighteenth century. The “missive” found here is closely related to two other similar texts, but has by far the more complete and better version.
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Category: 2004