Category Archives: 2011

Nummer 1/2011


A.K.L. THIJS

Vera Effigies? Vindingrijke omgang met drukvormen: productiekosten reducerende beeldmanipulatie bij bedevaartprenten

Vera Ogies? Creative engraving leads to cast reduction as well as to unauthentic imagery at holy pilgrimage sites
In the preindustrial era image manipulation enabled publishers to cut production costs by reusing printing blocks, even in a quite different context. They sometimes altered the image a litde bit and did not bother at all about violating the authentic­ity of the design. Evidence of this practice can be found in many kinds of cheap prints (chap books, almanacs, broadside ballads, etc) though rarely in images sold at pilgrimage sites. But by exploring the rather marginal phenomenon of this type of religious imagery new light can be shed on the position of the publisher and the pil-grim.
Because of the conditions in which the production and distribution of pilgrimage prints took place, image manipulation did not occur on a large scale. The local ecde­siastical administrators, who generally ordered the images, wanted to sell an accurate depiction of their holy site. The same can be said about the commercial publishers who were also active in well-known places with a guaranteed return. Thanks to this constant demand of the pilgrims, the (quite common) practice of using a printing block with a different context was rare.
The study of this (limited) number of special images does not allow to conclude that many pilgrims rejected these manipulated prints as fakes or considered these ‘mis­representations’ as problematic, because their religious experience did not depend on the representations as such. What mattered for them was the belief in the special power they expected from these devotional prints. These `sacred’ images enabled pil­grims to make supernaturalism tangible in everyday life.

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H. PIENA

Liefde uit Duitsland. Thüringer spanen dozen in de collectie van het Nederlands Openluchtmuseum
With Love from Germany. Chip wood boxes from Thiiringen (Germany) in the collec­tion of the Dutch Open Air Museum (Arnhem)
The Dutch Open Air Museum houses a collection of about 250 chip wood boxes of varying origin. Recent research revealed that about 68 of these boxes were made in Th0ringen, Germany. They date from the end of the 18th century up until about 1900. Although these boxes are from different periods and differently decorated, they are remarkably similor in their production techniques. They all seem to have been made by splitting and planing long pieces of pine wood. The bottom and top boards are cut out and, if necessary, two boards are glued together to gain the required width. The sides are joined with willow twigs. The bottom and top boards are mounted with wooden pegs, the most recent examples being fixed with staples.
Initially these boxes were used as presents accompanying a wedding proposal. From the beginning of the 19th century the repertoire of decoration expanded covering mythological, heraldic, erotic and educational topics. From about 1830 onwards the painted decoration on the top was replaced by a lithography and the boxes predom­inantly served as containers for wooden toys.
Chip wood boxes were transported in huge quantities by boat and in the 18th cen­tury were already a well known item throughout the whole of Holland. They became a characteristic feature in Dutch households in all regions and social dasses. Their secondary use in Holland varied from the storage of important documents through to little household items and, most often, fragile textiles such as lace bonnets and rib-bons.

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K. FRANCOIS en R. PINXTEN

Etnowiskunde: ontstaan en betekenisverschuiving van een concept
Ethnomathematics: Development of a Concept and its Shified Meaning
Ethnomathematics has no correlate in Dutch. Analogous to ethnomusicology – referring to the science of music around the world with the exception of so-called classical music – ethnomathematics could be considered to be the science of mathe­matica) thinking around the world, except for academie mathematics Indeed, at its inception ethnomathematics could be described in those terms. It was first and fore­most developed within anthropology as the study of mathematica’ practices of illit­erate peoples. Over the past decennia the concept was broadened, but it remained an important topic of research within anthropology. It now focuses on the study of mathematical practices in general, looked from the point of view of the group con­cerned.
In this paper we give an overview of emergence of the concept focusing on the shifts in meaning in it from an exotic and rather Eurocentric towards a postcolonial and intercultural approach to mathematical practices. Apart from that we investigate the areas in which ethnomathematics hos a potential impact: anthropology, history, phi­losophy, and of course mathematics education.

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Category: 2011

Nummer 2/2011


 


 

D. CALLEWAERT

De subjectieve en collectieve tijdservaring vanuit een volkskundig perspectief

The individual and collective experience of time: an ethnological analysis
Personifications, attributes, images and expressions render the concept time less abstract. Indications of time are not always mathematical data because in a special context they too often have an emotional value (e.g. nine eleven, 31st of october vs. halloween, etc). Discussions about setting the doek to summer-time are ridiculous in comparison to interfering with the calendar. The julian and gregorian reforms were pragmatic. The `revolutionary’ reforms were ideological and brought forth col­lective protest because people lost their points of reference and reacted accordingly. In the western hemisphere the abbreviatons AD, AH and UT refer to different eras and this aspect of time deals with identity.
Life is marked by ups and downs. That is the reason why it is important to act cau­tiously, to know beforehand what is to be done and avoided at a certain moment. Some people believe that the way something happens (especially at the starting­point) sets an ominous precedent.
It is remarkable that there are so many contradictory points of view regarding (un)lucky moments. This paper is not meant to be an inventory, but rather as an appetizer.

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E. DECRAENE

ghelyck eene man met eeren toestaet‘ De constructie van de “goede” en “falende” echtgenoot voor het Brusselse en Mechelse geestelijke hof in de eerste helft van de 17e eeuw: ezen casestudy
“Like a man with honour permits”. The construction of the Bood’ and the bad’ husband before the ecclesiastical court of Brussels and Mechelen during the first half of the seven­teenth century: A case study
This study aims at analysing the way in which the idea of male dominance within a marital bond was constructed and negotiated before the ecclesiastical courts of Brussels and Mechelen during the first half of the seventeenth century. Via a dis-course analysis of 11 cases on marital conflicts, I aim to demonstrate that husbands had to come up to a fluid corpus of expectations. Patriarchal dominance was not absolute and the boundaries between an acceptable practice of dominance within husband/wife relationships was constantly negotiated and contested by neighbours, friends, families and priests. Men who violated the acceptable social practice of patri­archal principles inside their households affected their manly status in other social, often public, circuits and vice versa. This micro-study will serve as a first step towards a better understanding of the actual social practice of early modern patriar­chal power.

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H. GEYBELS

Sint-Damiaan in de religieuze volkscultuur: held of heilige?
Father Damien: Saint or Hero?
Father Damien is very popular, though almost unknown in popular religious culture, contrary to e.g. Saint Anthony, Saint Rita, Mary … Not only in Flanders, but also in Hawaii, a popular devotion has never developed, notwithstanding the enormous amount of relics which has been spread. Nowadays, people light candles, offer some money and touch his grave, but that’s about it. One of the explanations is that Father Damien is foremost a `social hero’ and it is difficult to identify him with a hero. What he has done, is hard to conceive, almost super-human. He is an example of courage, commitment, solidarity and so on. Another reason is that the Fathers of the Holy Hearts never encouraged popular devotions for the first saint of their congre­gation. The Fathers presented him as a christian example of love for the neighbour, rather than a devotional idol. There has never been an explicit merchandising, so to speak. However, some things changed in the pilgrimage place of Scherpenheuvel. In May 2010, a big, bronze statue of the saint was revealed, and suddenly people start­ed to touch the one foot of the saint. Till now, that is the only expression of a po­pular cult, which spontaneously came into origin.

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Category: 2011

Nummer 3/2011


J. TAELS

Over humor, levenskunst en tragiek
On Humour, Art of Life, and the Tragic
In his philosophical approach J. Taels attempts to elucidate two central meanings of humour: humour as the synonym of the comic, and humour as an art of life.
In the first section he discusses several central aspects of humour in the broad sense, which relates to all forms of expression (verba’, auditory, visual, mimicry, under­standing etc.) that in one way or another appeal to our desire to laugh. Particularly he outlines the three most prominent theories on the meaning of the comic: the superiority theory, the release theory, and the incongruity theory.
In the second section he goes deeper into the art of life aspect of humour. In this nar­row sense humour refers to an exemplary practice, ‘a universal human activity that invites us to become spectators upon our lives’ (Simon Critchley). By dislocating the familiar and by summoning unexpected contexts and horizons, humour makes peo­ple assume a contemplative attitude towards the world. At the same time, this theo­retical attitude unfolds in an eminently practical marmer. Humour is, in this case, an indication of an art of life that is dosely related with practical wisdom, and that makes up a part of the ethical and spiritual praxis in life.

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K. FEYAERTS

Humor en creativiteit taalkundig bekeken
Humour and Creativity from a Linguistic Point of View
This contribution focuses on the question how humour can be investigated from a linguistic point of view. For that purpose we advocate the paradigm of cognitive lin­guistics as a dynamic model of meaning research. In this paradigm, meaning is iden­tified as a rich conceptual structure, which in running discourse is constantly being determined and mutually coordinated by the individual participants of the interac­tion. This observation pertains to the dimensions of active construal and intersub­jectivity of meaning, respectively. From this usage-oriented perspective, humour can be described as marked, but structurally regular language use, which is operated through exactly the same construal mechanisms as in everyday, non-humorous lan­guage use. In any case, the linguistic analysis of humorous and creative language use provides us with a beuer insight in the flexibility of both semantic categories and the meaning system as a whole. Specifically, this contribution illustrates how the seman­tic mechanisms of metonymy and resonance can be exploited and manipulated in function of a deautomatization of the interpretation, on the basis of which a humor­ous effect can be achieved. Throughout our analysis, we demonstrate that a dyna­mic view on meaning requires the social dimension of meaning to be included as well. In the analysis of humorous utterances, it becomes dear that meaning emerges in a process of mutual coordination, in which participants constantly anticipate and evaluate their interlocutor’s knowledge, attitudes, emotions, judgements etc. Through this observation, we identify the intersubjective dimension as an inherent component of meaning and we regard creativity as a fundamental cognitive ability, whose systematic impact can be observed throughout all types of media.

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Category: 2011

Nummer 3


J. TAELS

Over humor, levenskunst en tragiek
On Humour, Art of Life, and the Tragic
In his philosophical approach J. Taels attempts to elucidate two central meanings of humour: humour as the synonym of the comic, and humour as an art of life.
In the first section he discusses several central aspects of humour in the broad sense, which relates to all forms of expression (verba’, auditory, visual, mimicry, under­standing etc.) that in one way or another appeal to our desire to laugh. Particularly he outlines the three most prominent theories on the meaning of the comic: the superiority theory, the release theory, and the incongruity theory.
In the second section he goes deeper into the art of life aspect of humour. In this nar­row sense humour refers to an exemplary practice, ‘a universal human activity that invites us to become spectators upon our lives’ (Simon Critchley). By dislocating the familiar and by summoning unexpected contexts and horizons, humour makes peo­ple assume a contemplative attitude towards the world. At the same time, this theo­retical attitude unfolds in an eminently practical marmer. Humour is, in this case, an indication of an art of life that is dosely related with practical wisdom, and that makes up a part of the ethical and spiritual praxis in life.

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K. FEYAERTS

Humor en creativiteit taalkundig bekeken
Humour and Creativity from a Linguistic Point of View
This contribution focuses on the question how humour can be investigated from a linguistic point of view. For that purpose we advocate the paradigm of cognitive lin­guistics as a dynamic model of meaning research. In this paradigm, meaning is iden­tified as a rich conceptual structure, which in running discourse is constantly being determined and mutually coordinated by the individual participants of the interac­tion. This observation pertains to the dimensions of active construal and intersub­jectivity of meaning, respectively. From this usage-oriented perspective, humour can be described as marked, but structurally regular language use, which is operated through exactly the same construal mechanisms as in everyday, non-humorous lan­guage use. In any case, the linguistic analysis of humorous and creative language use provides us with a beuer insight in the flexibility of both semantic categories and the meaning system as a whole. Specifically, this contribution illustrates how the seman­tic mechanisms of metonymy and resonance can be exploited and manipulated in function of a deautomatization of the interpretation, on the basis of which a humor­ous effect can be achieved. Throughout our analysis, we demonstrate that a dyna­mic view on meaning requires the social dimension of meaning to be included as well. In the analysis of humorous utterances, it becomes dear that meaning emerges in a process of mutual coordination, in which participants constantly anticipate and evaluate their interlocutor’s knowledge, attitudes, emotions, judgements etc. Through this observation, we identify the intersubjective dimension as an inherent component of meaning and we regard creativity as a fundamental cognitive ability, whose systematic impact can be observed throughout all types of media.

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Category: 2011

Nummer 4


A.K.L. THIJS

Het liedeken vande joffrouw van Brugge en haar catteken: lachen om de sentimentalisering van de omgang met een eigenwillig huisdier
Ridiculing too sentimental a relation with pets: the song about a young lady of Bruges and her beautifid but headstrong small cat
These days the cultural-historical interest in the man-animal relation hos grown con­siderably. Yet in Flanders this relation still remains a rather unexplored domain. Therefore, this article draws attention to a late seventeenth / early eighteenth centu­ry teat dealing with the emotional relation between a young single in Bruges and her favorite pet. It was written by a well-versed person.
For altes domestic cats were looked upon as ill-disposed creatures, deceitful and mali­cious. They owed the bad name to their purported contact with witchcraft and to the fact that they are less tractable than dogs.
That may be one of the reasons why we could only find a few traces of (sentimen­tal) man-cat relations and only in the upper class during the early modern era. In fact, sentimentalizing broke definitively through in the second part of the nineteenth century. This song is one of the relatively early testimonies. It is worth mentioning that in 1841 the poet P.J. Renier incorporated a few elements of this song in a Holy Mary legend, situated in Bruges.

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D. CALLEWAERT

West-Vlaamse volkszangers met populistische trekjes?
Flemish songs as a source for social research
A selection of early 20’h-century popular songs proves that most West-Flemish non-professional singers were a combination of (rather light-hearted) populist and moral­ist. Eradicating prejudices was not their priority because they were by all means aim­ing at immediate applause. The singers preferred to exploit gender problems, defend traditional values (e.g. group loyalty/social immobility) and criticize (indirectly) the hypocritical establishment.

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G. BUELENS

“God verhoor ons, dat zijn wij”. De functies van het Nederlandse Eerste Wereldoorloglied

“God answer our prayers, this is us”
Functions of the Dutch First World War Songs
Internationally the First World War is associated mostly with poems like ‘In Flanders Fields’ or, within the Dutch speaking world, Paul van Ostaijen’s Bezette Stad. Songs as well became famous through the war. By December 1914 les a Long Way to Tipperary (originally from 1912) was generally known as ‘The Marching Anthem on the Battlefields of Europe’. The Netherlands was not a battlefield, yet due to massi­ve mobilisation efforts thousands of Dutch soldiers had to march on a daily basis. In 1915 an official song volume for the Dutch army was published. The Dutch who were not mobilized also spent the war singing about the conflict – a very rich but hardly researched source to learn how the Dutch dealt with the official policy of neu­trality.

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G. DE MEYER

Rock is dood
Rock is Dying
Starting from the quote by Sting (The Police) in 2006 that rock music isn’t revolu­tionary, but instead reactionary music, and that rock music is dying, this essay tries to link the actual status of rock music to matters of authenticity, mainstream versus substream, business versus creativity, the phenomenon of cross-over and recycling. The conduding chapter tries to give an answer to the question if the rock-fan really is as open-minded, as he is supposed to be and has an omnivorous taste, as post­modern theory suggests.

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L. P. GRIJP

De Vlaamse dimensie van de Nederlandse Liederenbank

The Flemish dimension of the Nederlandse Liederenbank
The Nederlandse Liederenbank (www.liederenbank.n1) is a database that unlocks about 150,000 songs and is used both by scholars and the genera’ public. Translating the name of the database into English yields a problem that is related to an impor­tant question of this essay: how relevant is the Nederlandse Liederenbank for the Flemish community? Usually ‘Nederlandse Liederenbank’ is translated rather easily as Dutch Song Database’ – so as a Dutch database of songs or as a database of Dutch songs -, but one may also interprete it as ‘database of songs in the Dutch language’. In the context of this essay one might ask if `Dutch’ is the most adequate translation for ‘Nederlandse’, because `Dutch’ seems to refer to the Netherlands, while the Nederlandse language indudes both the northern variant of the language, spoken in the Netherlands (`Dutch’), and the southern variant, spoken in Belgium (Tlemish’). The latter interpretation is in line with the policy of the Meertens Institute in Amsterdam, which hosts the database: the Nederlandse Liederenbank may contain songs both from the Netherlands and Flanders. In this essay the author, who is in charge of the Nederlandse Liederenbank, argues in favour of more Flemish-Dutch cooperation in this field.

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M. DE BRUIN

Twee liedverzamelaars: Pol Heyns en Ate Doornbosch

Two Song Collectors: Paul Heyns and Ate Doornbosch
The Dutch Song Database (DSD) contains some 4.000 recordings of ballads made by Ate Doornbosch from 1957 to 1993 in The Netherlands, using his radioshow Under the Green Lime to collect them. About twenty years before him the Flemish reporter Pol Heyns recorded hundreds of songs, also in the context of a radiopro­gramm. The recordings are now added to the DSD. In this artide it is argued that the two collections are extra valuable in combination. Obviously this is the case with new material, but even more so in the matching parts of the collections. To some extent the same songs or variants of songs were recorded and this leads to more knowledge about the circulation of both texts and melodies, used in contemporary research on oral transmission. Therefore it is a good idea to map as many collections of Dutch and Flemish recordings as possible.

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R. BELEMANS

Plat gezongen. Over muziek en streektaal in Vlaanderen en Nederland
Singing in dialect or regional language in Flanders and in the Netherlands
Singing in dialect has a long tradition in the Low Countries, that reaches back to the medieval folk songs and the broadside singers, who lasted until the middle of the 20’h century. The appearance and the increasing popularity of the modern media since the Interbellum caused great changes in the language use in popular music. The use of dialect became increasingly unpopular as music and shows got broad­casted for a much bigger, nationwide audience. Singing in the Dutch standard lan­guage guaranteed to local entertainers more audience and fame. From the fifties on many international artists with a repertoire in English were also favored by the broadcasting companies. It took as long as the eighties of the 20″ century before there was a revival of singing in local dialects, at least in the Netherlands. In Flanders it still remains a not really popular genre until today. The different attitude towards the Dutch standard language in Flanders and the Netherlands and a different legal position of regional language variants next to Dutch can explain, why there are some hundreds of Dutch artists with a dialect repertoire and at least a regional fame and airplay in comparison no more than a dozen in Flanders.

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W. BOSMANS

Pol Heyns’ veldopnamen van Vlaamse volksmuziek uit 1935-1938 in de universiteitsbibliotheek van Regensburg

Pol Heyns’ field recordings of Flemish folk music from 1935-1938 in the University Library of Regensburg
The ethnographer and radio reporter Pol Heyns (1906-1960) was the first collector of Flemish folk music to make recordings of the singers and musicians he visited. From December 1935 to the summer of 1939 he recorded about a thousand songs and instrumental pieces. With these field recordings he illustrated his radio talks on Flemish folklore. In 1941 Heyns published a volume ( Volksliederen) with a selection of 57 transcriptions of the songs he had collected. Only a small half of Heyns’ recordings survived in the archives of the Flemish public broadcasting company VRT. In 2007 the author published the study Pol Heyns en het volkslied (Pol Heyns and folk song), with an inventory of the extant recordings and a reprint of Volksliederen. After publication it appeared that about another 250 copies were kept in University Library of Regensburg (Germany), most of them lost in the VRT. They were made in Brussels in 1942 on the instigation of the German ethnomusicologist Alfred Quellmalz, a collaborator of Himmler’s Ahnenerbe. After the war Heyns’ recordings were transferred to Regensburg, where they were catalogued by the eth­nomusicologist Felix Hoerburger in 1953. In 2005-2007 they were digitized by the aterreiches Phonogrammarchiv in Vienna. The present artide tells the story of the Regensburg copies, catalogues them and presents some of the singers. The accom­panying CD contains the original recordings of 19 songs in Heyns’ Volksliederen, and also includes his very first recordings (Nos 1 and 2), the two oldest recordings of songs accompanied on the fiction drum rommelpot (Nos 22 en 23), and the only known recording of a Flemish broadside singer’s performance (No. 24).

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Category: 2011