Een duurzame toekomst voor de Friese folklore
Anne-Baukje Coster, Maaike de Jong, Alexander Grit & Sander Vroom
Dit artikel verkent de kansen en uitdagingen waarmee immaterieelerfgoedgemeenschappen in Friesland te maken hebben als het gaat over
cultuurtoerisme en het versterken van steden en regio’s. De relevantie van
dit kwalitatieve onderzoek ligt in het verkennen van strategieën teneinde
duurzaam toerisme, als een urgent duurzaamheidsvraagstuk, te combineren
met het behoud van erfgoed in vier kenmerkende Friese immaterieelerfgoedgemeenschappen.
Met behulp van semigestructureerde interviews is deze bijdrage onderdeel van een breder onderzoek van Kenniscentrum Immaterieel Erfgoed Nederland
naar toerisme en immaterieel erfgoedborging in Nederland.
De Friese erfgoedgemeenschappen benoemen zelf als de grote uitdagingen:
1. het enthousiasmeren van nieuwe generaties die zich willen engageren
voor deze vormen van immaterieel erfgoed;
2. het vinden van voldoende publieke en financiële steun om het immaterieel erfgoed levend en boeiend te houden. Deze bijdrage verkent de kansen
van de toepassing van moderne technologieën en de mogelijkheden van samenwerking met lokale ondernemers, overheden en culturele instellingen. De aanbevelingen zijn gericht op meer verdiepend onderzoek naar de potentie van
dergelijke vormen van samenwerking tussen de erfgoedgemeenschappen en al deze betrokken stakeholders, met respect voor en erkenning van ieders eigen perspectief en belangen.
Kernwoorden: immaterieel cultureel erfgoed, duurzaamheid, duurzame steden en gemeenschappen bescherming, cultureel toerisme, cultureel ondernemerschap.
Sustainable Intangible Heritage tourism in Eijsden-Margraten:
The Route from Ist to Soll
Eva Snoek, Emma Verloop, Borah Vincent, Danielle Willekes & Wil Munsters
Of all municipalities in the Dutch Province of Limburg Eijsden-Margraten houses a surprising number of local traditions and crafts included in the Dutch Inventory of Intangible Heritage (such as fetching the Sint Brigida-Pine and boiling Limburg syrup). This article uses the Cittaslow’s approach for enhancing sustainable intangible heritage tourism. The research team identified and interviewed all parties involved in the safeguarding of local intangible heritage, such as custodians, practitioners, residents, companies and visitors. Our premise is that sustainable intangible heritage tourism should focus on finding synergistic balance and alignment between the interests of diverse
stakeholders. We surveyed tourist visitors about their interests in and perceptions of local intangible heritage. Local residents were also surveyed about their feelings concerning intangible heritage tourism. The views of custodians, practitioners and entrepreneurs were gauged by using in-depth interviews.
In order to learn from experiences elsewhere in the Netherlands, we also analysed best practices in intangible heritage tourism, which were applicable to Eijsden-Margraten. Our research findings enabled us to develop four recommended intangible heritage related attractions and events: a heritage experience museum; workshops; a regional products day; and a spectacle. The
various stakeholders can develop each of these together in order to attract intangible heritage tourism. These recommended activities should
produce year-round intangible heritage tourism in Eijsden-Margraten, ultimately strengthening small-scale sustainable tourism.
Keywords: intangible heritage tourism, cultural tourism sustainability mix, best practices, tourism policy.
Ethnic Tourism as an Opportunity for Sustainable Development of Intangible Heritage in Superdiverse Neighbourhoods A Study of Rotterdam’s West-Kruiskade District and The Hague’s Paul Krugerlaan District.
Albert van der Zeijden, Rozilda Varela & Wendy Raaphorst
This article demonstrates that ethnic tourism offers an important opportunity for the tourist marketing of highly diverse neighbourhoods that were formerly known as “problem areas.” Ethnic tourism also offers the prospect of safeguarding intangible heritage in a highly diverse context, for which Steven Vertovec coined the concept of ‘superdiversity’, to refer to current levels of population diversity that are significantly higher than before. Conurbations such as The Hague and Rotterdam are committed to ethnic tourism for economic development and to the enhancement of the quality of life in these formerly deprived neighbourhoods. It is an international trend, which can be seen in all major superdiverse cities in Western Europe.
We show that ethnic entrepreneurs play a key role in these processes.
They bring economic development by attracting ethnic tourists even from countries outside Europe.
We illustrate these processes via examples, learnt from City Silks in
The Hague, which attract customers from as far away as Morocco for its ethnic wedding costumes, and from Bharat Lachmansingh in Rotterdam, which has been selling traditional and ritual products for 37 years from the Surinamese/Indian culture, with clients from countries such as Belgium, Germany, France and England in addition to the local Surinamese/Indian population. We demonstrate that these ethnic entrepreneurs fulfil the role of ‘cultural brokers’, as ‘custodians’ of intangible heritage. As experts in traditions, these entrepreneurs provide information, sell products that are indispensable for the
practice of this intangible heritage and are often involved in organizing
intangible heritage events. In this sense, they contribute to safeguarding
intangible cultural heritage. We also demonstrate that these ethnic
neighbourhoods present themselves as meaningful places where one can see and experience various forms of intangible heritage.
It is demonstrated that there are various tensions in these processes.
Between commerce and culture, between tourism and heritage, between safeguarding intangible heritage and economic development, and last but not least, between various stakeholders, for example residents of a neighbourhood, ethnic entrepreneurs, tourism industry, area developers and city governments.
One issue especially addressed is the challenge of folklorisation. It is undeniable that festival-like forms such as Chinese New Year and Keti Koti are brought forward as powerful markers of a neighbourhood, and such festivals may also be of interest to tourists. But it is also shown that the marketing of “authentic” intangible heritage has its limits, and that this kind of branding can also lead to folklorisation, often referred to all the challenge of
‘Disneyfication’. It may attract new tourists but does not always benefit
Keywords: superdiversity, intangible heritage, ethnic tourism, sustainable
tourism, social development, city marketing, Chinatown, Little India,
overcommercialisation, authenticity, UNESCO
Toerisme als coproducent van een “authentiek” immaterieel cultureel erfgoed. Essay over een ambivalente relatie
De relatie tussen toerisme, authenticiteit en immaterieel cultureel erfgoed is ambivalent en complex. De toeristische zoektocht naar of de enscenering van authenticiteit wordt beschouwd als een waardevol goed, is echter
epistemisch moeilijk te begrijpen.Bovendien vormt die zoektocht een
belangrijke basis voor participatieve projecten voor duurzaam toerisme
op basis van regionale kenmerken. Tegelijkertijd wordt toerisme vaak
gezien als een storend element, omdat het een als authentiek begrepen
cultureel erfgoed verandert. Dit essay pleit ervoor om niet uit te gaan
van een dichotomie van schijnbaar autochtone dragergroepen van lokaal
immaterieel cultureel erfgoed en de beïnvloedende toeristen, maar eerder van de complexe relatie en interactie van verschillende groepen actoren in de opbouw van cultureel erfgoed, in authenticatieprocessen en de betrokken economieën. De
historische terugblik is hier ook waardevol, aangezien verschillende
casestudies kunnen aantonen welke rol het toerisme al heeft gespeeld in het ontstaan van culturele praktijken die nu als immaterieel cultureel erfgoed worden gecatalogiseerd. Het cultureel erfgoed blijkt hier een coproductie te zijn van verschillende groepen actoren die verder gaan dan de beoefenaren van immaterieel erfgoed in engere zin. Het nog steeds problematische concept van
authenticiteit als legitimerende factor voor immaterieel cultureel erfgoed
staan tegenover kennis en waarden voor maatschappelijke oriëntatie.
Kernwoorden: immaterieel cultureel erfgoed, toerisme, authenticiteit,
volkscultuur, invented traditions, populisme, UNESCO
On the Future of Tourism and the Role of Industrial and Technological
How can intangible heritage contribute to the development of industrial heritage and tourism? This is the primary question addressed by this essay. Based on a survey of the literature, this article examines the development of industrial archaeology and heritage in order to address the role of material heritage in recent decades, especially in tourism. A better understanding of the concept intangible heritage is needed, in order to fully explore the potential of heritage communities for touristic products within e.g. the European context offered by the network organization ERIH (European Routes
of Industrial Heritage). A specific framework, supported by several
stakeholders, is needed, as is a better understanding of industrial heritage
by tourism professionals.
Keywords: industrial heritage, intangible heritage, industry, technique, ERIH, tourism
Nostalgiascapes and Images of the Netherlands
On Tourism, Intangible Heritage and Nostalgia
Nostalgiascapes are specific places where a coherent and positive ‘story’ about the past is told. This article discusses the Dutch Ellert and Brammert Open-air Museum in the province of Drenthe and the Dutch ‘De Bruine Kroeg’ pub as nostalgiascapes where an attachment (endearment or ‘vertedering’) for
‘Dutchness’ is created. Dutchness is also represented in several places in
other countries, such as Germany, the United States, Japan and China, where a stereotypical version of the Netherlands is displayed.
This article discusses three forms of ‘vertedering’. Firstly, the article
addresses the Western Netherlands’ (Randstad) inhabitants’ paternalistic
view of the ‘backward’ rural rest of the country (of which Drenthe is
supposedly a prototype). Secondly, the article addresses the place of the
Dutch positive self-congratulatory view of their national tradition of
Dutch ‘gezelligheid’ (coziness) in pubs and homes. Finally, the article
examines the partly paternalistic view of Dutch old-fashioned quaintness
displayed in some foreign countries based on stereotypes of Dutchness
(wooden shoes, tulips, mills).
Keywords: nostalgia, nostalgiascapes, semioscapes, intangible heritage, Netherlands, gezelligheid, endearment, tourism
Who Comes to Flanders to Experience Cycling Races?
A Big Data Approach
Steven Valcke & Marjan Nauwelaert
Cycling is part of the DNA of Flanders. Bumpy cobblestones, hills and fighting the wind make cycling in Flanders a unique experience. Domestic and international cycling enthusiasts love to experience this piece of heritage firsthand. For years Tourism Flanders has marketed Flanders abroad as a destination for experiencing this unique cycling race. The agency opts for
a knowledge-driven approach and therefore conducts research on cycling enthusiasts abroad. This is a challenge because it is not easy to efficiently reach a sufficiently large sample via traditional recruiting methods, such as online panels or face-to-face recruitment. That is why alternative research methods are being developed. This contribution examines two big-data-based studies. The first study targets those who are passionate about cycling on a global scale. This research is based on Facebook data. The considerable size of these anonymised data makes it possible to define and analyse the group of cycling enthusiasts against a reference group. By working with two different reference groups, on the one hand, we gain a picture of the typical global cycling enthusiast and, on the other hand, we can discern whether there are differences within the global group of cycling enthusiasts, for example by country of origin. The second study uses Strava app data to bring the foreign cycling tourist in Flanders to the fore. Amateur cyclists use this app to measure, track, and share their performances. This entails a wealth of information which is analysed in this contribution. The first study thus offers a picture of the potential international visitor and the second a picture of the international visitor who comes to experience Flemish cycling heritage.
Keywords: cycling races, cycling, big data, cycling tourists, social media
From Emotional Experience to Sustainable Engagement
How the Irish Government Links Intangible Heritage with Diaspora
Jacqueline van Leeuwen
This essay analyses diaspora tourism in Ireland today. Is this an example
of instrumentalization of intangible heritage for economic purposes only?
Or does the local community benefit from such diaspora strategies as well?
The essay offers an in-depth study of policy documents and manuals,
supplemented with conversations with Irish colleagues, and an analysis
of the Donegal Connects festival. The discourse of the diaspora strategy
is often very emotional as it refers to a sense of belonging and the
search for a rooted identity. Is the decentral approach of the Irish policy
striking? It supports local heritage communities to develop projects that
truly meet their needs.
I argue that intangible heritage benefits from this approach. Firstly, because locals (re)discover the meaning and value of the heritage in their own region. Moreover, by connecting these local groups to an international diaspora, the heritage community is widened. As such the tension between “host” and “guest”
disappears, as locals and diasporamembers become partners in cocreative
processes. In this long-term relationshipbuilding engagement is central, a
concept that is further elaborated in this essay in five sub-types:
emotional, effort, cognitive, social and innovative engagement. The Irish diaspora strategy triggers these five types. It lifts abandoned villages out of isolation and contributes to improving the local quality of life. Moreover, it guarantees that the care for heritage can continue, even if the support of the government should be reduced.
In Ireland, diaspora tourism is an ally for enabling sustainable heritage
development. It is based on feelings of connection and triggers a strong form
of engagement. The policy builds international heritage communities that take care of and safeguard the heritage together. Or, to put it in the words of the Irish minister of Diaspora: “diaspora tourism is more than a resource, it’s a community”.
Keywords: Ireland, Dublin, diaspora policy, tourism, engagement, local
communities, emotions, sense of place
Tourism and Cultural Heritage at the
Seaside: A Match Made in Heaven
This article deals with the relationship between tourism and intangible
cultural heritage from an unexpected angle: tourism as intangible cultural
heritage. At the Belgian coast many cultural practices such as ‘making
paper beach flowers’, eating ice cream and riding a go-cart or billenkar
exist today because of the growth of tourism in the coastal area in the
last hundred years. Since congé payé (paid leave) was introduced in 1936,
for many Belgian people the Belgian coast became the preferred nearby
holiday destination. Many cultural practices were, therefore, formed at
the Belgian coast, wherein tourism and intangible cultural heritage are
undeniably linked to each other.
The traditions and customs are upheld by both locals and tourists who do not always see the importance of these practices from a heritage perspective. Therefore, heritage institutions such as the erfgoedcel have a unique role in promoting consciousness about what intangible cultural heritage is, why these practices are an important dimension of our cultural heritage and how each and every one of us keeps it alive just by going on holiday. Erfgoedcel
Kusterfgoed believes that this institution-based approach creates opportunities to start a dialogue about this intangible heritage and can also serve as a way to address tourism in a more conscious and sustainable way.
Keywords: tourism, intangible cultural heritage, Belgian coast, erfgoedcel
Hannelore Franck & Peter Slosse
In Ypres, every three years the Kattenstoet (Cat Parade) takes place.
This historical and folkloristic parade originated during the 1950s, but
the link between Ypres and cats is several centuries older. The Ypres Museum plans a project to safeguard the intangible cultural heritage of the parade. However, during the preparations an interesting opposition came to light. While
the museum viewed the parade as intangible heritage, the organizers viewed it as a living tradition aimed at a large audience. More importantly, the organizers assumed that by recognizing the parade as heritage, the identity of and control over the parade would change. By engaging in a dialogue and taking time to build up trust, both partners were able to overcome these oppositions and design a project that will safeguard the heritage while maintaining the
current identity of the parade as an everchanging event, aimed at a broad
Keywords: Ypres, Kattenstoet, intangible heritage
Handmade in Brugge: A Lever for
More Sustainable Heritage and
Handmade in Brugge is a programme that associates Bruges with cutting edge craftsmanship. The initiators wanted to develop a testing ground in which the efforts of the ‘UNESCO Convention for the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage’ (2003) would be linked to local policymaking in a programme across
policy areas: heritage, tourism, urban development, education. With Handmade in Brugge, an alternative storyline for Bruges was written from 2013 onwards. In addition to the well-known tangible and world heritage of the city, Handmade in
Brugge wanted to both stimulate and make the intangible heritage more visible. Handmade in Brugge is now anchored in a multi-year policy and is increasingly focusing on current themes such as innovation, creative entrepreneurship, sustainability and the search for answers to societal challenges. Together with a broad network of creators and numerous other players in the city, Handmade in
Brugge contributes to a tourism that pays attention to what goes on in the city today and is made locally by many hands on a daily basis.
Keywords: intangible cultural
heritage, Bruges, safeguarding,
craftmanship, sustainable tourism