2008/3-4 Summaries


Eén Vlaanderen? Culturele diversiteit op en voor het televisiescherm.

Summary: One Flanders? Cultural diversity on and in front of the television screen
This article asks two questions; how does Flemish television represent the modern multicultural society in fictional programs and how do autochthon and immigrant viewers feel towards it? A short overview of the current Flemish fictional offer learns us that ethnic minorities steadily receive more attention but that it also remains difficult to represent this diversity in a balanced way – not one-sided positive or negative. Research among young adults shows that Flemish fiction is not as appealing as the more relaxed American fiction. Nevertheless, they are acquainted with Flemish fiction, which has the benefit of being recognizable. Both autochthons and immigrants watch Flemish soaps with mixed feelings, but for different reasons: for autochthons, the representation of their own environment is not realistic enough, immigrants find it more realistic but not focused enough on their own environment.
Especially the scarce and limited parts for immigrants bother them, while autochthons have led objections. In general, there are many parallels between autochthon and immigrant viewers, but especially regarding the representation of ethnic diversity opinions do differ significantly.



Over compôte Egyptienne, ananas en pain à la Mecque. Exotisme op het bord van Leopold II (1865-1909).

Summary : About ‘compôte Egyptienne’, pineapple and bread ‘à la mecque’. Exotic food on the plate of Leopold II (1865-1909)
This article will look into the presence of exotic ingredients in the kitchen of the royal palace during Leopold II’s reign (1865-1909).
Does the king eat exotic dishes? If so, is it due to a sincere integration of foreign food or is it rather about giving an exotic ring to it?
Furthermore, we will discover if the purpose of a possible integration of foreign cuisine is to impress guests or if it also includes an enrichment of the daily meals. At last, we’ll be looking at how everything evolved throughout the forty year reign of the second king of Belgium.



Bewogen door ruimte en tijd. Migratie als rode draad in de verdere ontwikkeling van het Nederlands Openluchtmuseum

Summary: Moved through space and time. Migration as thread in the future development of the Dutch Open Air Museum.
This article describes the plans of the Dutch Open Air Museum to develop a series of new presentations during the coming years about migration to and fro the Netherlands. Firstly, we take a look at how the museum policy has developed, after gaining its independency in 1990. It is made clear how the choice for the migration theme fits within the more ‘including’ focused policy. Afterwards, the article goes deeper into the culture-political situation of the Netherlands. The increased interest of politics in the history and identity is seen as a ‘mixed blessing’ for the inheritance world.
The lost important considerations concerning the content of the migration are mentioned, making it clear that migration itself should be interpreted and presented as a normal part of the history.
The goal of the program is next; migration will be incorporated into the existing presentations of the Dutch Open Air Museum.
Finally, using a few concrete examples, the article will show how the migration theme will be formed.



Hedendaagse nomaden? De uitdaging van een kritische omgang met diversiteit in de culturele erfgoedsector

Summary: Modern nomads? The challenge of a critical approach of diversity in the World of cultural inheritance.
Inheritance and diversity go hand in hand. Migrations (political, economical, sociological) have always given sense to a society and shaped it. That much is clear. Different interpretations of diversity, multiculturalism and the expectations to have a politically correct discourse so people of an ethnical-cultural background feel involved, mean that reality sometimes lacks a critical sense. Involving ethnical-cultural minorities is most definitely a must. Well meant initiatives though are often narrowed down to the ethnical-cultural aspect while people are more than only their origin.
That is why the theories of Visker and Braidotti could be used to establish a renewed mentality at the least. Both Visker’s proposal to make differences debatable in public spaces as well as Braidotti’s nomadic thinking give the inheritance world chances to better handle a diverse society. It is about removing existing barriers, differences between opponents (autochthons-immigrants, black-white, Flemish-Moroccan,…) and thinking from a much broader sense, broader than the ethnical-cultural.
A modern nomad is capable of crossing ruling canons and frontiers, to make differences and common elements debatable and to see groups and people as more than an ethnical-cultural identity. Attention for critical historic writing and for a proper context is a first step in the right direction. Working together with organizations from a durable practice is the second.



Linken van inkt. Stukken tekstueel erfgoed van de Turkse migratie in België.

Summary: Links of ink. Pieces of textual heritage of the Turkish migration in Belgium
In this article, we take a look at the textual heritage of the Turkish migrants in Belgium, more specifically at the tensions between historiography, testimonies and literature. We analyze the historical discussion content of some works by Altay Manço, Muharrem Türköz, Nihat Kemal Ates and Mustafa Kör. These writers represent each a different genre and style. Yet they use similar patterns in their representation of the own migrant history. With their stories they have made an up until now little known contribution to the self representation of the Turkish migrant history. The textual inheritance grows and can now become a part of the migration’s inheritance. However, these texts must be viewed critically when categorizing them and the dominating arguments. Some authors of the textual inheritance aren’t professionals at all, which can often make their texts very authentic and rough. Their stories are valuable testimonies about daily life, dreams and illusions of migrant families. We will discuss some of those stories in this article



Kun je interculturele competentie leren? Volkskunde en interculturele communicatie

Summary: Can intercultural competence be taught? Ethnology and intercultural communication
Now that Flanders and the Netherlands are increasingly evolving into a multicultural and diverse society, students and professionals can no longer do without intercultural competences. They must be aware of and be open to the diversity of society, know the social and professional realities of people with different cultural backgrounds, and be able to communicate with these people. Working on this knowledge, these skills and attitudes are made possible using an intercultural communication portfolio.
Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerp initiated a pilot project with such a portfolio: a first for Dutch-speaking education circles.
Intercultural contacts belong to the routine tasks of academics and professionals in the course of academic exchange or international business contacts. The success of the exchanges and the business contacts (and thus contracts) depends largely on the competences of the academics/employees involved.
Knowledge of another culture and insight into communicative intercultural processes can lead to an integrated learning process in which the student and the professional – through the communicative to the social – acquires respect for the other party and is able to succeed more easily in international exchanges and in the fob market.
The basic competence is: ‘I am a critical and conscious citizen and I can function flexibly and intercultural in an open and respectful manner in the multicultural and divers society in which I live and work’. In this paper a new framework of reference for intercultural competence is presented. This framework was worked out on the basis of research and existing frameworks, but also advised by the Flemish-Dutch working group that was set up to advise on and monitor the whole process.
Working with a portfolio for intercultural competence does not happen in an academic void. On the contrary, integration a portfolio is only possible if academic authorities choose resolutely for competence-based education and support the concept of constructivism, if teacher training is available and students are well informed.
Though the framework is tested in an educational setting, it is the aim of the author to use this framework on a larger scale in the professional life of people working for companies, organizations or administrations in which intercultural contacts are frequent.



Culturele diversiteit: van een essentialistisch naar een kosmopolitisch perspectief

Summary: Cultural diversity: from an essentialistic to a cosmopolitan perspective.
Within the contemporary debate about cultural and gender diversity, the items diversity and multiculturalism are confronted with biodiversity.
On a second level, essentialism is being analyzed in many attitudes towards cultural identity.
Finally, light is thrown on the increasing impact of citification with the purpose to reach a justified complexion of cultural identity.



Etnische diversiteit in het 20ste eeuwse Brusselse restaurant.

Summary: Ethic diversity in the 20th century Brussels restaurant
Brussels has a special relationship with Paris. It shows for example in the dominant position of the French kitchen in Brussels restaurants. Yet there is no doubt whatsoever that during the first decade of the 21st century, many other culinary traditions are represented in the Belgian capital. Analysis of the restaurant guides show that the rise of exotic restaurants is no novelty.
The growing diversity meant that the French-Belgian kitchen receded. There are different explanations of this phenomenon: on one hand there is the growing mobility of both travelers and migrants. However, we shouldn’t overestimate the importance of migration: for example, the arrival of Moroccan and Turkish restaurants in the Belgian restaurant guides. During the 60’s and 70’s the reviews were mainly focused on the economical aspect of exotic restaurants. From the 80’s and especially the 90’s authenticity became more important and luxury was no longer synonymous with French haute cuisine. Finally – again from the 90’s – all sorts of mixed kitchen became more and more important, even (or maybe mainly) in top restaurants.



Etnische diversiteit in de canon met kleine c.

Summary: Ethnic diversity in the canon with a small c.
The Canon of the Netherlands gives a wide view of its history in fifty windows: the people and events in this Canon can provide a broader historic panorama. In September 2009 the Canon will be compulsory in schools. Arnhem will also house a National Historic Museum based on the Canon. Whether or not the Canon will improve integration remains to be seen, but in any case it will offer the necessary basic knowledge of history and heritage.
The canon with a small c is an addition to the fifty windows and offers fifty matching folktales, songs or testimonies. The small canon has been developed by the DOC Volksverhaal (Documentation and Research Centre of Folktales) of the Meertens Institute in cooperation with the Dutch Ethnology Chair of the Amsterdam University. One of the points of criticism of the large Canon was that it is rather focused on the history of the white Dutch. The canon with small c tries to compensate this with a more ethnical approach and by paying attention to more exotic narrative repertoire about Anansi, Nanzi, Kantjil and Nasreddin Hodja.