Category Archives: Summaries

2018/01

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Thijs and the study of devo¬tional prints
The late professor Alfons Thijs was an expert in the field of devotional prints from Antwerp (17th-19th Cen¬turies). After his death the university library of Antwerp acquired more than 1.000 prints, related to the city. The library made its ‘Thijs Collec¬tion’ available on line http://anet.be/ opac/opacuactobj. The first part of this article stresses Thijs’ scientific research and publications and shows Thijs as a collector of all sorts of devotional prints. The second part is devoted to the history of the research of this print work. It starts with Adolf Spamer’s Das kleine Andachtsbild vom XIV. bis zum XX. Jahrhundert (1930). The first study dealing with Antwerp was published in the same year: Les images de dévotion anversoises du XVle au XIXe siècle by Emile Van Heurck. They mainly studied their object in a ‘rather’ traditionally historical way: printers, print methods, iconography, taxonomy and functions. Since the turn of the millennium and the rise of ‘material Christianity studies’ de¬votional prints are looked at in a new way: the focus is now on the function¬ing of the object in everyday life and in the construction of the religious identity of the user. The article closes off with the presentation of some new research results of this recent meth-odology.

Learning by attention
Visiting and commemorating the dead in the Aymara culture and the Low Countries
The text starts with a short compara¬tive reflection – commemorating the dead in the Low Countries versus what indigenous groups do in “the Andes”– and gradually concentrates on visiting and commemorating practices among Bolivian Aymara families, in order to reflect upon some philosophical-anthropological considerations about what social life might be, in its broad¬est sense. In a concrete way, this ar¬ticle is about their visiting, honouring and commemorating the dead (and in a certain way also being visited by them). It will show how “the social component” always is intimately en¬tangled with “the ecological element” in an ever-extending meshwork of life-embracing relations, much clear¬er than in our traditions. The article analyses how the Aymara carry on their lives –“socialize”– in intense and attentive ways, not only with their guiding ancestors but also, in a very related way, with other inhabitants and elements of the world, such as animals, sacred places and protecting mountains. This proposal also urges us to ask ourselves about the learning dynamics involved here: how people, through these visiting and com¬memorating practices, learn to cul¬tivate and cherish “attention” for the interwovenness of all life processes and for the way human life lines “cor¬ respond” with other lines of life. This “attention” is vital in many senses. Both questions, the entanglement of the social and the ecological elements and the education through attention-enhancing practices of exposure, can be asked about other places, such as Flanders and the Netherlands, taking into account the different contexts, elaborations and accentuations.

Ma’nene’ or how to keep the dead alive?
In this article the author brings us to Toraja, a mountainous area in South Sulawesi (Indonesia). The ancestral belief of the inhabitants led/leads to extensive funeral rites. The Dutch col¬onisation from the beginning of the 20th century onwards slowly but sure¬ly influenced these rituals. Still, the touristic scene discovered this place in the seventies and since then Toraja is a well visited region, due to these still extensive rituals, as the tourists are welcome at the burial feasts. Recently, tourists are now also visiting a ceremony that was largely a private matter. During the ma’nene’ ceremony the family of the deceased take the coffin out of the tomb to clean the grave. Meanwhile they open the coffin and give the mummified corpse new clothes, food and ciga¬rettes. At the end of the ceremony the coffin is put back in the grave. The fact that this kind of second funeral is being promoted as a touristic high¬light by the local touristic office can either be a danger or an opportunity for this ceremony.
The author explores how dark tourism and ma’nene’ can influence one another in a region where Christi¬ Christi-anity is the major religion, but where the inhabitants also keep up some of the ancestral rituals, closely connect¬ed to religion.

Intangible Heritage & The Muse¬um in an age of superdiversity
In this article the authors focus on the question of how museums can find new roles in a more (ethnically) diversified society. The challenge of what English sociologist Steven Ver¬tovec has called the challenge of su-perdiversity is huge. This refers to a new demographic reality, a diver¬sification of diversity in which city populations are more dynamic than ever before. Where until recently the challenge was mainly restricted to the integration of a limited group of mi¬grants in a dominant ‘white’ heritage discourse, we now see much more di-versification in which the notion of majority versus minority cultures is no longer relevant.
For the intangible heritage sec¬tor the focus on superdiversity opens new perspectives to interpret intan¬gible heritage from a more dynamic, global perspective – heritage that is always on the move and becomes meaningful in ever changing fluid contexts. This focus shows that intan¬gible heritage is NOT being carried by stable homogeneous groups, „dis¬tinct from the rest of society and lost in time”, as Ramon de la Combé once provocatively formulated it. Instead, heritage is about dynamics, flow and fusion. It is determined by multiple perspectives. For museums the focus on intan¬gible heritage may open ways of deal¬ing with superdiversity. The focus on intangible heritage implies a shift from ‘heritage preservation’ to ‘safe¬guarding heritage’ and ‘heritage in the making’, and a shift from ‘heritage of the past’ to ‘heritage in the present and future’ – for intangible heritage is by definition contemporary, dy¬namic culture. ‘Participatory collect¬ing’, ‘connecting people’, ‘listening to multiple networks around intangible heritage’ and ‘being part of these net¬works’ are the important key words. Through co-creations between museums and the bearers of intangi¬ble heritage museums can support the safeguarding of heritage while at the same time they will draw attention to the superdiversity of society. Co-creation offers opportunities to nego¬tiate intangible heritage among dif¬ferent stakeholders (amongst which the museums themselves) and to de¬velop heritage for the future. It is an open ended, experimental approach towards intangible heritage, for what we would like to call a network-labo¬ratory approach.

Category: 2018, Summaries

01/2017

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Between taboo and tolerance
30 years of AIDS commemoration in the Netherlands
The article deals with the commemoration of AIDS during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It focuses on AIDS Memorial Quilts and the rituals related to them. The quilts were made to fight intolerance against AIDS and homosexuality and to shape a commemoration community. The successful control of the epidemic and the increase of tolerance led to a change from grief over the AIDS victims to the celebration of life. The quilts have lost their function. They are now given to several museums to represent the history of AIDS, AIDS commemoration and tolerance towards homosexuals in the Netherlands. The article raises the question in how far AIDS commemoration is related to nationalism in the Netherlands and images about ‘Dutchness’.

Everyday Humour in the Initial Years of the Dutch Revolt
In the opening years of the Dutch Revolt, in the 1560s and early 1570s circulating oral humour was a symbolic means to negotiate political norm changes. This kind humour created a Lachgemeinschaft, a laughing community among the Dutch people. Their laughter was based on the well-known traditions of joyfulness
on the ice and carnival upheaval as well as jokes on swaggering soldiers and impertinent artisans. The future was uncertain and carnivalesque symbols, jokes and travesties creating temporary powers were a boisterous means to test the rules of authority. But, this also caused friction and created particular laughing communities, for instance those of the gueux or beggars, the noblemen who in 1566 disputed with the governor general concerning the relaxation of the edicts on religious tolerance. Nevertheless, carnival humour was paramount and allowed for a playful investigation of temporary authority as a way to deal with uncertain political roads to take. Flemish drunkenness and jokes on a peasant farting in front of emperor Charles V were the illustrations of this comic worldview among the Dutch population, whatever their actual appreciation of the course of events. In the course of the 1570s, however, continued fighting and comic propaganda stirring up hate of the enemy prevailed and the Lachgemeinschaft of the Netherlanders fragmented and broke down.

Category: 2017, Summaries

02/2017

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“The White Wrap Speaks For Itself”
Dynamics and Prescriptive Order in the Traditional Dress of Staphorst, c. 1950-2017
It is not for the first time that the people of the village of Staphorst in The Netherlands make out the subject of an article in Volkskunde. In 2017 a substantial but slowly diminishing number of women still wears the lo¬cal traditional costume every day. The costume tells us, among other things, whether they mourn about a beloved person or an acquaintance. The unwritten rules how to mourn help these women to cope with the situation in a manner they know well. On the one hand the mourning dress imposes a straight jacket. Their so¬cial network appears a factor not to be missed. One’s clothes are a major preoccupation, but many people seem even more preoccupied with someone else’s costume. Despite the rules, one has a certain freedom to apply them to one’s own ideas. This article de¬scribes how the rules are becoming clearer when not followed correctly. Many examples from everyday life in Staphorst, starting from a period of preparation before a burial to the mourning period thereafter, makes clear that there is a layered set of rules for mourning. One may shorten the period of mourning, or alleviate the rules themselves. A mourning dress may also be chosen based on social or religious needs. No need to say that a creative use of rules is talked about in
the village, even if one doesn’t strictly apply the rules, for instance because of a lack of a group to provide social feedback. The women wearing a tra¬ditional costume will often be the last and only members of their fam¬ily adhering to this habit. There are no mothers and daughters to correct them.
In this way, this article introduces the reader to a group that seems to stick to common ways of coping with be-reavements within their way of cloth¬ing. However, their regional and reli¬giously inspired rules give the women of Staphorst a certain freedom to cope with a situation in their own way. This article thus provides a fascinating in-sight into the mentality of a Dutch re¬gion, and into the implications of this mentality in clothing.

Folklore and Medicine
A 19th Century Struggle Against Superstition
In the late eighteenth and early nine¬teenth century folklorist research became popular throughout Europe. The research purposes varied widely. Whereas in Germany folklore was mostly used to revive and conserve folk culture, its foremost purpose in the Netherlands was to repel superstition. This article focuses on an enquiry into superstition conducted by J.C. de Man, a doctor from the province of Zeeland.

De Man sent out letters containing several questions regarding supersti¬tious beliefs to several correspondents in Zeeland. Although his resentment against superstition is clear, De Man never specified the specific purpose of his research. The only remain¬ing results are two lectures about divination in Zeeland. The study of these documents and two additional lectures from De Man on medieval diseases and demographics in combi¬nation with the remaining correspon¬dence from the inquiry have allowed me to look into De Man’s motivation for his inquiry, as well as his inspira¬tion. One of his correspondents, J.P. Snoep, had been participant in a prior inqui¬ry of the Nederlandsche Maatschap¬pij tot bevordering der Geneeskunst (NMG) into superstition. As De Man was in the same medical association as Snoep, he must have known about the inquiry and it is therefore very likely that it must have been a ma¬jor source of inspiration. It becomes clear from his lectures that De Man sees superstition as a threat to medi¬cal progress and success. As a doctor he experienced the devastating effects of epidemics in Zeeland, which must have motivated him to take proactive measures in any relevant field. Conse¬quently, De Man’s inquiry should be seen as a survey of the threat towards medical progression, the threat being superstitious beliefs.

Category: 2017, Summaries

03/2017

Fantastical Stories in Plural:
or, The Reach of Giants
Historical narrative research is increasingly facilitated by internet sources, especially in the Netherlands where a service like Delpher (a combination of “delver” = miner, and “Delphi” = the oracle) provides access to millions of pages from historical newspapers, journals and books; the latter also includes the dbnl (digital library for Dutch literature). With all these newly accessible texts, attention to contexts tends to suffer. While this introduction merely mentions issues like literacy and multilingualism, it explores stories about giants (very tall human-like beings) in some detail. It concludes that they were mentioned in the Bible and chronicles, thus belonging to the category of belief, but also the subject of hyperbole, particularly in relation to the creation of the landscape. Stories about giants were situated between “belief” and “jest”. In the course of the eighteenth century, and for some as yet unknown reasons in the Northern rather than the Southern Netherlands, the balance between the two shifted towards “jest”. It is suggested that this field of cultural tension may also provide one of the contexts in which to understand the issues which are subject to the other contributions to this volume.

An unlikely story:
The Latin ‘fairy’ tales of a medieval Cistercian
Throughout literary history, fairy tale-like stories have frequently met with resistance from critics who deemed their playful disregard of historical-empirical realism unfit for more “enlightened” readers. Meanwhile, authors of such stories have often anticipated and responded to this line of criticism in their writings so as to vindicate them(selves). The present contribution discusses the particular case of the Latin framed tale compilation Dolopathos, sive de rege et septem sapientum (Dolopathos, or the King and the Seven Sages, 1184-1212), written by the Cistercian monk John of Alta Silva. Among its embedded exempla, it also features a marvellous story about supernaturally descended children who are victimised by their wicked grandmother and transformed into swans. Through a multi-layered analysis of this story, its encompassing frame narrative and the pro- and epilogue that accompany the entire work, this article aims to shed light on the sorts of methods writers such as John have relied on to imbue their creations with an aura of truthfulness and put them to a specific use, in this case of a religious-monastic nature. These include the introduction of morally exemplary elements to a given story, the fictional dramatization of that story’s truthfulness in the specific context of its frame tale, and direct interpretative and literary-theoretical reflections by the narrator/author – all of them methods that would be employed again by fairy-tale authors in centuries to come.

Flying Carpets in the Arabian Nights:
Disney, Dyâb … and d’Aulnoy?
In May 1709, 19-year old Hanna Dyâb told Antoine Galland a lengthy story about Prince Ahmed and Pari Banou, which Galland subsequently took into the final volume of his Mille et Une Nuits (1704-1717). It was a straightforward fairyland fiction that played out in two worlds, one Pari Banou’s enchanted subterranean world, the other the ordinary world of Prince Ahmed, his two brothers, and their father. The first half of the tale, which involves competition for a bride, is resolved amicably when the three brothers cooperate to heal their cousin. Three magic objects are involved: a telescope, a flying carpet, and a healing apple.
Hanna Dyâb’s flying carpet, like “Prince Ahmed and the Fairy Pari Banou” as a whole, has no antecedent in Arabic narrative tradition. It seems to have been Dyâb’s own invention. That is the first surprising conclusion. The second, however, has to do with the imaginary from which a flying carpet may have emerged. Since “Prince Ahmed and the Fairy Pari Banou” is so heavily dependent for its plot and motifs on a tale by Marie-Catherine d’Aulnoy published in the 1690s, it is reasonable to further examine her oeuvre for motivic antecedents for a flying carpet. Such an examination, in fact, brings to light a likely crossover point for Dyâb’s culturally and literarily consequential creation of a flying carpet, in addition to his utilization of a full thirteen plot and motif links binding “Prince Ahmed and the Fairy Pari Banou” to “La Chatte blanche.” This article confirms and extends a line of inquiry into Western and European contributions to the Eastern Arabian Nights.

Telling through your teeth:
(re-)oralisation of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century literature
One of the bones of contention of present-day folktale research concerns the relation between the written and oral tradition of stories. Especially the “fairy tale” genre, however, provides many examples of written or printed versions which preceded the oral tradition and may well have initiated it. The question posed in this contribution is whether this also applies to other narrative genres such as the joke, the anecdote or the legend. The digitalisation of Dutch books and journals provides rich material for a fruitful exchange between proponents of oral and printed transmission. Seventeenth-and eighteenth-century examples of anecdotes are discussed that in the nineteenth century were deemed to be oral but, in a number of cases clearly derived from earlier printed versions. Could they have been based on older oral versions? Here examples are discussed of ATU 750B, ATU 1527A, ATU 1735, ATU 1293 and ATU 1837.

Dutch newspapers (1850-1950) as legend medium
The study of newspaper legends emerged as a vital research topic in the nineteen fifties and has so far focused on the past half century. The present study explores the potential of digitized newspaper archives to analyze the discursive construction of newspaper legends in Dutch dailies during the years 1850-1950. Emic concepts of Dutch journalists are contextualized in shifts regarding content, genre and work routines of the Dutch daily press. During this period, the most frequently used label for traditional stories of uncertain veracity was zeeslang, i.e. sea serpent. These stories were said to be particularly frequent during the slow news season in summer, the so-called komkommertijd (lit. ‘cucumber time’). Identifying and condemning these stories as false or unreliable served the rhetorical function of bolstering the journalists’ ethos as a credible professional. Discussing sea serpent and cucumber stories, journalists demarcated their routines and output from those of less professional news purveyors (Gieryn’s ‘boundary work’). The most commonly named scapegoat were allegedly money-driven American journalistic practices.

The lover as witch:
A different look at Dutch-language migratory legends on witchcraft
Migratory legends about witches are usually catalogued according to their magical content. In the Low Countries, however, over a hundred of those legends, classified as different “types”, contain the same warning: “do not marry a witch”. This contribution relates the difficulties of finding the relevant texts of the legend “the lover as witch” through ostensibly similar ways of categorising. As far as can be gathered from Scottish and Scandinavian catalogues of migratory legends, this particular theme is unknown beyond the Low Countries. Only in collections from western Germany a few examples have been found. This relativises the migratory in the migratory legend. It also calls for a reconsideration of the way witchcraft legends are classified, especially if they are to be integrated into a broader historical study about the witchcraft discourse. The last sections discusses how the narrative could be used in the way marriages were restricted, as well as the occurrence of the legend in comparison to nineteenth- and early twentieth-century newspaper reports.

Category: 2017, Summaries

2/2015

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B. DENIS, Home, sweet home?! Publiek en privaat onder de loep in negentiende-eeuws Antwerpen (1880)

Summary: Home, sweet Home?!
The Public and Private Element in Domestic Culture (Antwerp, 1880)
Contrary to the strong Anglo-Saxon tradition that predominantly draws on normative sources to study the
middle class home and domestic culture, the focus is here on a broader socio-professional group. Based on a sample of official inventories, the analysis charts the domestic interiors
in Antwerp in ‘the age of domesticity’ and sheds a light on some nuances and contradictions regarding the public/private doctrine. The singularity of the home in Antwerp is to be taken into account. The urban context determined the margin for negotiating the domestic ideal when dividing and using the available space.
Against the background of a rapidly changing society, a cosy home offered consolation and refuge. Domesticity became a synonym for (illusive) privacy, because the decoration of the frontstage parlor and the dining room reveals that these rooms were intended not only as home comfort but also as representation. The lower middle-class had to be creative since the separation of the workplace from the household was often impossible. Social class, status and gender played a role as regards domesticity.

G. BUELENS, ‘En redders zult gij zijn van heel het Vaderland!’
De artistieke en culturele beeldvorming van en herinnering aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog als een Vlaamse, Belgische of internationale aangelegenheid sinds 1914

Summary: ‘Saviours you will be of the Whole Fatherland!’
Remembrance of the First World War as a Flemish, Belgian and International Affair (1914-2014).

This article analyses a wide variety of cultural artefacts that in the past century have been shaped by poets and other cultural agents. From the beginning of the Great War most Belgians only wanted to get rid of the Germans and to restore national sovereignty. The war became an outright struggle for the survival of Belgium and this fact united the
(Dutch speaking) Flemish and the (French speaking) Walloons against
the common enemy. But, as the war dragged on, Flemish civilians in the occupied territories (as well as in neutral Holland) and an
influential contingent of soldiers at the front started to see the war as a purely inner-Belgian conflict which (hopefully) would ultimately lead to Flemish independence. Thus, the war deepened political and cultural divisions in Belgium, leading to the
emergence of a Flemish nationalist party at the first post-war elections (1919). From the twenties onwards Flemish filmmakers, novelists, poets and journalists were instrumental in promoting
this vision on the Great War. But when the Cold War drew to an end, a few Flemish novelists, e.g. Hugo Claus and Tom Lanoye, began criticizing the old view. They disagreed with the way ‘Flemish radicals and fascists’ had appropriated the Great War. The idea
that the First World War was a global conflict has prevailed ever since. This international orientation has also inspired many centenary activities. Nevertheless, the focus seems to have shifted lately from critical self-analysis to ‘peace tourism’, to the multifaceted war experience of ‘Flanders Fields’ and to the political balance of power in the new federal Belgium.

J. VERRIET, ‘Een ongevaarlijk avontuur’ Beeldvorming omtrent buitenlandse eetculturen in Nederland, 1950-1970

Summary: ‘A Safe Adventure’.Foreign Cuisine as mediated in the
Netherlands, 1950-1970 In the post-war decades ‘foreign’ foods
and international cooking became a new trend in the Netherlands.

The role of the mediators has however hardly been examined, even though their subtle negotiation between housewives and producers formed a consistent plea for cultural change.
Therefore this paper offers a muchneeded closer look into the definitive birth of one of the biggest food trends of the twentieth century. In order to plot the presentation of ‘foreign’ food in the Netherlands at that time it zooms in on the magazine-factor:
magazines as the most significant mediators of food choice in the 1950s and 1960s. The cultural significance of the (gradual) changes is explained by means of a systematic survey of the patterns found in recipes and advertisements. They are coded and subjected to a close reading to generate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this way a complex dual strategy in the representation of ‘foreign’ food is revealed. The mediators presented ‘foreign’ food as strange to render it more exciting, but kept some of its aspects more recognizable to keep these ‘foreign’ products and recipes accessible. Surprisingly, these commentators were not naive about the complexity of the new cuisine during this crucial phase in the globalization of cooking. Instead of focusing on uthenticity,
however, they took a pragmatic approach in presenting the new
ingredients as ‘a safe adventure’. The mediators’ awareness and deliberate use of language and images played a significant role in appreciating the new food.

Category: Summaries

1/2015

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K. DE LEEUW, Hoebloot (niet) bedekt werd

Summary:Roman catholic Repression of immoral Ways of Clothing (Tilburg, 1914-1970)

In 1914 Pius X and the Roman Catholic Church launched an attack against modern women’s indecent clothing: short sleeves and skirts, low necklines, trousers, transparent or fleshcolored fabrics, etc. Modern fashion was considered to lead to improper sexual relations, to handicap a mother’s educational role and to diminish faith. Therefore a set of rules was made and implemented.
Tilburg is a city in the south of the Netherlands and used to have over 95 percent Catholics. Did all citizens follow these rules? To answer this question research was done in the three local Catholic newspapers. They proved to differ considerably in covering the issue and in censoring indecent drawings in advertisements and in fashion columns. Their position varied from docile to liberal.
Two chastity associations were created in the hope to mobilize an antiindecency army. But they never attracted more than nine percent of the Catholics. They turned out to be paper tigers. Some faithful obediently followed the rules, from conviction. But the majority did so submissively, afraid of being excluded from school and church. And nobody wanted to end up as a laughingstock or gossiptarget in the Catholic community.
But there were loopholes. The rules were ingeniously stretched as far as possible, e.g. low necklines were covered with shawls or jackets when going to church. Openly confronting the religious authorities was rather rare, but occurred. Some mothers threat- ened to send their child to a public school, when the clothes were not accepted.
Research has proved that the Roman Catholics in Tilburg have not always been not a perfectly homogeneous, ruleabiding flock. Since 1914 the number of dissidents has steadily grown and by 1970 clothing was matter of personal conscience.

W. DE BLECOURT, Eenmalige verhalen in Vlaanderen

Summary:Unique stories in Flanders
On the Classification of Fairy Tales

Most of the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century orally collected fairy tales contain one or two texts that are considered unique, either in their country or in their language. Folklorists (who typically emphasize multiple existence, doublets and variations) rate these texts rather as anomalies which make cataloguing rather problematic.
In his optimistic revision of The Types of the Folktale (1961) Thompson tried to solve this conundrum by adding extra type numbers. On the other hand Uther (The Types of International Folktales, 2004) simply left them out, although the original texts do exist. Based on De Meyer’s catalogue Le conte populaire Flamand (1968), forty one-variant types fit in the Tales of Magic range, i.e. in almost one third of the Tales of Magic types (300-750).
The authors have solved the anomaly of these texts by linking them to existing, mainly printed, stories and by valuing them as adaptations, corruptions, combinations or residues.
Some peculiar findings are worth mentioning, ranging from a new version of Goethe’s Erlkönig to several Straparola tales or from copying a Russian tale to mixing pieces of the Grimms’ Kinder- und Hausmärchen into a narrative. Above all, stories of the Arabian Nights proved popular with the Flemish.
Among the forty texts examined there was hardly any genuinely new material. This can prove that they constituted the end of a tradition (which was by no means exclusively oral) rather than marking the beginning of a new era.
Although more research needs to be done, a new kind of fairy-tale catalogue is feasible, with printed texts as its starting point. Unique stories can thus be assigned to their rightful place instead of simply being ignored.

Category: 2015, Summaries

4/2014

ISIS STURTEWAGEN, “Alle tsamen zo hebbelicken ghecleet”. Kinderkleding en dagelijks leven in de Brugse Bogardenschool rond het midden van de 16e eeuw.

Summary: “All together respectably dressed” Children’s Dress and Daily Life at the Bruges Begard School in the mid-16th Century

Both Zegher van Male’s (1514-1604) memorial of the Bruges Beghard school, a charitable institution that took care of young boys from the poorest families of the city, and its account books, give a unique and almost intimate peek into the multifaceted use of garments in a world created for and inhabited by children. From these sources it becomes clear that the most crucial purpose of clothing was that the boys would be comfortable in their clothes and well protected from the elements. From an organisational and financial point of view, it was deemed important that the clothes were not expensive and should last long. In van Male’s mind providing the children with comfortable and durable clothes went hand in hand with limiting expenses. Clothes, moreover, played an important part in the way the school wanted to present itself and their pupils to the outside world in public events and through gift giving. It was not only the quality and neatness of the clothing that was capable of conveying messages to the outside world. Compared to the clothes of other boys of their age, who would have worn a doublet, underpants and hose, the Beghard children were dressed like younger children. We can wonder whether this was for practical reasons or because it held ideological values. After all, like innocent young children, not yet able to look after themselves, the pupils of the Beghard school were completely dependent on the care and open handedness of Bruges citizens as other children depended on their parents.

JOHAN DE BRUIJN en JACCO HOOIKAMMER, “Als ze het maar netjes aandoen”. Nieuwe betekenissen van de Staphorster streekdracht.

Summary: “If they only wear it properly” New meanings of the traditional dress from Staphorst.

This article describes the traditional clothing in Staphorst on the verge of becoming  occasional dress. Staphorst, a calvinist village in the northern part of The Netherlands, is one of the few remaining places where traditional dress is worn everyday by a substantial number of women, and a few men. In this survey, some thirty people were interviewed informally to understand what it means to wear traditional clothing, and when and why people choose to do so. Four cases were investigated. Firstly, people presenting the traditional dress in the local museum, secondly, men in the local choir wearing traditional menswear, thirdly, women and children wearing the local costume visiting The Hague on Prinsjesdag (state opening of parliament), and fourthly, the Staphorst is hip (“fashionable Staphorst”) phenomenon, where people find inspiration in traditional dress.

These four cases show us some remarkable facts. Wearing the local dress may seem an exclusive right to the villagers, but according to public opinion, anyone may do so as long as it conforms to local customs. For women wearing the traditional dress, their clothes are a vehicle to express their main values. Not so much for the men joining the Staphorst men’s choir, where traditional dress is no more than a means to show uniformity. In this way, they do not differ from the committees organising the women’s and children’s visits to Prinsjesdag. They do not allow people to join the group in burger: everyone should wear the Staphorst costume. Within these margins, deviation from the norms is allowed. Clashing opinions can be seen in a new local trend, in which traditional clothing is re-used in more fashionable objects. Many people are either very positive, or very negative about this trend.

The local costume in Staphorst has been more than merely a way of everyday clothing for decades. It is a part of a culture of representation and special occasions. Quoting key ethnological literature, the search for authenticity will be a useless effort. Anybody wearing the traditional dress does so in his or her authentic way, expressing the village identity. Staphorst clothing is often seen as a cultural phenomenon that is slowly but surely disappearing. This article offers a different perspective on traditional clothing as a part of a dynamic culture in which folklore is meaningful and symbolic. New studies on traditional clothing in other parts of The Netherlands may turn out to be worthwhile.

MAAIKE FEITSMA, Van volkscultuur tot haute cultuur – De relatie tussen mode en “Neerlandsheid”

Summary: From Folklore to “Haute Couture” The Relation between Fashion and “Dutchness

This article scrutinises the collections inspired by Dutch cultural heritage that were designed around the turn of the last century by Dutch designers as Alexander van Slobbe, Jan Taminiau, Viktor & Rolf and Francisco van Benthum. These collections stand out in the history of Dutch fashion because their aesthetics do not match the perception of Dutch fashion that has defined the fashion discourse of the previous ten years: theirs are minimalist, austere palettes and straight silhouettes without clear references to earlier styles or other ages. In contrast, the collections discussed feature fashion that starts from national history and national heritage.

Dutch avant-garde fashion design-ers, in their “heritage collections” mainly use the national icons of the Golden Age and of Dutch regional dress. They quote, adapt and reuse clogs, windmills, Delfts blue pottery, millstone collars, VOC ships, the Old Masters, red Coral chokers, Staphorster dot patterns or Volendammer coifs. In this article I argue that through images, shapes, materials and artisanal techniques from this cultural heritage these designers create not just a brand; they also participate in the (re)construction of the Dutch fashion identity. Precisely this creative and innovative application and repetition of national iconography proliferates the process of what Billig calls “banal nationalism” (1995). An analysis of the applied icons along Barthes’ rhetoric of the image (1977) shows that the abovementioned elements are not just style quotes that lead to a certain aesthetic, but that this iconic visual language also produces the symbolic attribution of “Dutch”.

CHIA LONGMAN, Religie, secularisme en vrouwelijk kleedgedrag. Van de islamitische sluier en joodse pruiken tot het topless “Femen” feminisme

Summary: Female clothing, religion and secularism From the Islamic veil and Jewish wig to Femen toplessness

A comparative gender analysis is made of contemporary body practices, especially as regards women’s hairdressing and clothing for Flemish women, including ethnic-religious minorities. In standard anthropology the symbolic meaning of hair has often been related to sexuality across cultural and religious traditions. In radical and liberal feminist theories veiling and covering practices have been connected to the patriarchal control over female sexuality, to limited freedom and mobility. In contemporary gender  studies, the influence of post-colonial, postsecular and multicultural perspective has resulted in a shift of focus to the way the women experience and interpret wearing their veil. Based on ethnographic research in Antwerp two forms of covering the female body are compared: the Islamic veil and the little known norms regulating  Orthodox Jewish “modest” clothing and hair covering. Despite the many similarities between Islamic and Jewish covering practices both societies regulate quite differently. While the public concern for the Islamic veil touches upon key issues regarding cultural and religious diversity (e.g. the status of Islam and gender) orthodox Jews and other minorities are much less prominent in public debate. The topless protest of the secular-feminist movement Femen illustrates that (un) covering the female body is a thorny issue in striving for a more pluralist and gender-equal society.

DIRK REYNDERS, Het culturele belang van modefotografie en visuele semiotiek – Modebeelden lezen als kunst via semiotiek

Summary: The rhetoric of fashion: photography and visual semiotics. Reading images of fashion as art through visual semiotics

The traditional definition of visual rhetoric implies that it influences behaviour and attitudes. This essay is about fashion, fashion photography, art and semiotics. It explains and illustrates that fashion, as a form of rhetoric, has the same capacity. The sense of style includes the rhetoric of fashion: the way a person presents himself to the world through the clothes he wears. Though it is an undeniable fact that a person’s style and fashion choices portray his personality and character.

SHIRLEY VAN DE POLDER, Mode, kostuums en dagelijkse kleding in Nederlandse musea

Summary: Fashion, dress and daily wear in Dutch museums

This article provides a historical overview on the emergence and development of fashion and dress in Dutch museums. By focusing on the formation of the collection and the changing modes of display, it is demonstrated that fashion and dress in Dutch  museums are not only defined by historical and fashion/dress historical influences. The image of the museums, the different modes of acquisition and museological developments have played a significant part and are still of influence on what we can see in the museums nowadays. This article touches upon various examples of these three decisive elements such as dress and period rooms as educational tools, donations of haute couture collections and the emergence of the monographic fashion exhibition, the emergence of temporary exhibitions and flexible exhibition spaces, the museum as a social forum and the focus on multiculturalism. This article forms one of the final products of a research internship at Modemuze, and this contribution will be used as an introductory text on the research on the website of Modemuze. In concert with the project leader of Modemuze, the author has therefore decided that this article does not contain any footnotes or endnotes. References to the sources consulted for this research can be found in the articles on the website that focus on the collection and exhibition history of the individual museums.

CLARA HIMMELHEBER, Der Körper als Bühne. Zur Präsentation von Kleidung und Schmuck in der Austellung des Kölner Rautenstrausch-Joest-Museums

Korte inhoud: Het lichaam als podium. De presentatie van kleding en sieraden in de tentoonstelling van het Keulse Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum

Tentoonstellingen over het onderwerp kleding en sieraden staan tegenover het principiële probleem dat kleding zonder het menselijke lichaam gepresenteerd wordt. Het tentoonstellen van kleding varieert van abstract tot realistisch. “Naturalistisch” vormgegeven poppen sluiten vaak aan bij racistische ideeën. Zij brengen een “single story” over. De poppen doen denken aan de gipsafgietsels die in de vroege 20ste eeuw populair waren in musea en racistische stereotypen in beeld brachten. Op grond van deze weinig roemrijke historische praktijk hebben etnologische musea tegenwoordig de neiging om kleding en sieraden zo gereduceerd mogelijk tentoon te stellen – het liefst helemaal zonder poppen. Maar is deze manier van tentoonstellen ook voor elke groep bezoekers begrijpelijk? En in hoeverre wordt de sensuele ervaring erdoor beperkt? In het kader van de ontwikkeling van de nieuwe permanente tentoonstelling Der Mensch in seinen Welten van het Rautenstrauch-Joest- Museum – Kulturen der Welt in oktober 2010 hebben de curatoren van het museum zich met deze vragen beziggehouden. Uiteindelijk besloten zij om in de verschillende afdelingen van de tentoonstelling kleding en sieraden op verschillende manieren te presenteren: abstract, op een emotioneel rakende manier tot op een manier waarbij de bezoeker moet participeren, zijn eigen lichaam moet lenen. Daarbij krijgt het object terug wat anders ontbreekt in tentoonstellingen: het levende lichaam. Het artikel beschrijft de verschillende – progressieve – presentaties waarvoor het Keulse museum heeft gekozen en laat zien dat de presentatie van kleding in musea altijd een cultureel construct is dat onderhandeld wordt tussen etnologen/curatoren, restauratoren en museumpedagogen, een schipperen tussen het begrijpelijk maken van het object voor verschillende groepen bezoekers en het gevaar van stereotypering.

DANAE TANKARD, The Historic Clothing Project at the Weald & Downland Open Air Museum (West Sussex, UK)

Korte inhoud: Historische kledij in het Weald & Downland Openluchtmuseum (West Sussex, UK)

Het project historische kledij liep in het openluchtmuseum Weald & Doownland van 2007 tot 2014. Doel van het project: het samenstellen van een zo volledig mogelijke verzameling van replica’s van historische kledij, zodat diegenen die in de historische gebouwen werken op een adequate manier gekleed zijn, wat de interpretatie van het geheel sterker maakt. Vrijwilligers vervaardigden alle replica’s ter plaatse onder supervisie van specialisten in historische kledij.

 

Category: 2014, Summaries

3/2014

M. JACOBS

Culturele makelaardij, omgaan met grenzen en het nieuwe paradigma van het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed. Volkskunde, UNESCO en transdisciplinaire perspectieven

In dit artikel wordt de vraag gesteld welke onderdelen uit het repertoire van de al dan niet “toegepaste” of “publieke vormen” van volkskunde uit de vorige eeuw actief kunnen aangewend worden in het nieuwe, 21ste-eeuwse paradigma van het “borgen van immaterieel erfgoed”. Hierbij wordt speciale aandacht gegeven aan ontwikkelingen in de Verenigde Staten op het einde van de 20ste eeuw, met name via een themanummer (en een vervolgartikel van Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett) van het Journal of Folklore Research uit 1999 waarin het begrip “cultural brokerage”, culturele makelaardij dus, naar voor geschoven wordt als sleutel- begrip. Dat wordt als aanknopings- punt gebruikt om de stromingen van de zogenaamde “public folklore” in de Verenigde Staten te presen- teren. Dat is een moeilijk naar het Nederlands vertaalbaar begrip dat het midden houdt tussen volkskundig onderzoek, omgang met volkscultuur, publieksgeschiedenis en erfgoedwerk. In het  halve   decennium vóór 2003 speelden de Amerikaanse protagonisten (zoals Richard Kurin) die met culturele makelaardij aan de slag waren, een belangrijke rol in de discussies die geleid hebben tot de UNESCO-Conventie van 2003. Ook in Vlaanderen en Nederland werd er in die periode op doorgewerkt en gediscussieerd over volkscultuur en het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed. In de voorbije jaren, door het niet ratificeren van de Conventie en zeker na het inhouden van de bijdrage van de Verenigde Staten aan UNESCO na de erkenning van Palestina, werd de wisselwerking tussen de Amerikaanse public folklore en het paradigma van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed minder sterk, wat niet wegneemt dat de ervaringen nog steeds relevant zijn. De nieuwe transdisciplinaire benadering van de kritische erfgoedstudies kan goede diensten bewijzen om allerlei methodes   en disciplines te combineren en vooruitgang te boeken.

 

D. LEWIS

Naar een beter begrip van de rol van niet-gouvernementele organisaties (NGO’s) als culturele makelaars. Een kritische bespreking van benaderingswijzen

De rol van niet-gouvernementele organisaties (NGO’s) als culturele tus- senpersonen is van belang geworden in steeds meer gebieden. Sinds de jaren 1980, toen de NGO’s voor het eerst werden geconceptualiseerd als “bridging organisations”, was er aandacht voor het idee dat NGO’s in het proces van sociale en eco- nomische ontwikkeling een intermediaire rol kunnen spelen tussen gemeenschappen en beleidsmakers en andere actoren. Meer recent hebben theorieën uit de actorgeoriënteerde sociologie en concepten van makelaardij en vertaling gezorgd voor nieuwe ideeën over de rol die NGO’s kunnen spelen in het bemiddelen van kennis, representatie en actie op het gebied van cultuur. Dit paper onderzoekt in het kort deze trends en bespreekt de implicaties voor de erfgoedsector.

 

M. JACOBS

Ontwikkelingsmakelaardij, antropologie en publieke actie. Lokaal versterken, internationaal samenwerken en ontwikkelingshulp: het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed

Hier wordt betoogd dat makelaardij een ontbrekende schakel is om enerzijds het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed zoals dat door de UNESCO-Conventie van 2003 op de nationale en internationale beleids- agenda’s is gezet en anderzijds ont- wikkelingssamenwerking en samen- werkingsontwikkeling samen te behandelen en op een positieve manier op elkaar te laten inwerken. Woorden zoals “brokerage” (makelaardij) of “bemiddeling” die, bijvoorbeeld in de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, als kritische succesfactor geïdentificeerd en naar voren geschoven worden voor het in de praktijk laten werken van het paradigma van borging van immaterieel   erfgoed,   komen ook in de recente, vaak erg kritische literatuur over programma’s van ontwikkelingshulp voor en vooral ook over de rol die niet-gouvernementele organisaties daarbij spelen. Hierbij kan zowel gewezen worden op een Frans- Duitse APAD-school, die onderzoek verricht over postkoloniaal Afrika en nagaat hoe lokale en internationale ontwikkelingsmakelaars (“courtiers en développement”) ervoor trachten te zorgen dat hulpmiddelen vanuit rijke donors in de richting van Afrikaanse actoren vloeien, vaak door het op een bepaalde manier vertellen en vertalen van bepaalde ontwikkelingsverhalen en het activeren van netwerken. Anderzijds is er de school die in de Britse (en Nederlandse) antropologie en andere sociale wetenschappen is gegroeid rond het oeuvre van David Mosse en David Lewis. Zij onderzochten en becommentarieerden zeer kritisch ontwikkelingsplannen en -hulp en vooral ook de rol die niet-gouvernementele organisaties voor ont- wikkelingssamenwerking speelden. Tevens benadrukten ze de combinatie tussen bemiddeling en vormen van vertaling (zoals dat begrip in de translatiesociologie wordt gebruikt). Dit is bruikbaar bij het analyseren van recente ontwikkelingen van “global-politique”, een begrip dat door Marc Abélès werd gelanceerd en dat zowel wijst op “beleid” als internationale politieke en diplomatieke onderhandelingen. Om te begrijpen wat er tegenwoordig in die internationale contactzones gebeurt, zowel in de UNESCO-wereld (in het bijzonder bij het uitwerken van de UNESCO-Conventie van 2003 over het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed) als in de wereld van de ontwikkelingshulp, komt het begrip makelaardij van pas. Als men terugkijkt in de tijd, zowel in postkoloniale,   koloniale   als zelfs in pre-koloniale tijden, blijkt het begrip “broker” of intermediair goede diensten te bewijzen om te duiden hoe intercultureel contact verliep en hoe een tijdelijk werkbare consensus of modus vivendi werd gevonden. Dit past in het programma dat de auteur voorstelt om de recente episode van het “global-politique” of het borgingsparadigma rond de UNESCO-Conventie van 2003 in een langetermijnperspectief te plaatsen, zowel in de cultuur(beleids)ge- schiedenis, de geschiedenis van staatsvormingsprocessen als in de wereldgeschiedenis van “ontwikkeling”. Een andere belangrijke les is dat kritische duiding en analyse niet hoeft te verhinderen dat publieke actie kan worden gevoerd om te trachten bepaalde uitdagingen in de wereld aan te pakken. Hierbij wordt de hoop uitgesproken dat het doordenken van makelaardij (bijvoorbeeld in de kritische erfgoedstudies) en het vormen van bemiddelaars en ontwikkelingsmakelaars, ook bijvoorbeeld in opleidingscentra in Afrika, een verschil kunnen maken.

 

J. NEYRINCK

Het Conventionele te buiten. Naar een werkmodel van coproductie voor het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed

Er is een uitgesproken democratische inzet van de UNESCO-Conventie (2003) om (de diversiteit aan) immaterieel cultureel erfgoed van individuen, groepen en erfgoedge- meenschappen over de hele wereld te willen helpen borgen. Nochtans blijven er heel wat vragen en uitdagingen wanneer we de implementatie   van   dit   beleidsinstrument in de praktijk overschouwen. Een globale evaluatie uit 2013 van de Conventie 10 jaar na de lancering geeft onder meer aan hoe de lidstaten veel meer zouden kunnen doen om erfgoedgemeenschappen en NGO’s te consulteren en te betrekken, bv. bij het ontwikkelen van beleid, wetgeving, plannen voor duurzame ontwikkeling, enzovoort. Men zou zelfs kunnen stellen dat de geloofwaardigheid van de Conventie op het spel staat, daar het hier bij uitstek om levend erfgoed gaat en het Conventiewerk geen enkele betekenis heeft als het niet door de betrokken mensen in praktijk wordt gebracht. Gegeven de meervoudige en complexe realiteiten waarbinnen de borgingspraktijken voor immaterieel erfgoed zich in de 21ste eeuw afspelen, zou ook de Conventie moeten zien te evolueren tot een multidimensionaal, lerend en toekomstgericht beheerssysteem dat die complexe contexten kan beantwoorden. Tegen deze achtergrond houdt de auteur een warm pleidooi om in het komende decennium het   “conventionele” van een internationaal en intergouvernementeel instrument te overstijgen en de Conventie van 2003 ten volle als “medium” of “bruggenbouwer” in te zetten waarbij vele stakeholders en actoren de borging van immaterieel erfgoed samen met UNESCO en de lidstaten beheren, co-managen en co- produceren.

Te midden van de vele diverse (types van) actoren die bij deze processen betrokken zijn kunnen bruggen- bouwers zoals NGO’s volop bijdragen met de nodige competenties en fora voor interactie, om de vertaalslag te helpen maken tussen de verschillende soorten kennis en knowhow die erbij komen kijken en de samenwerking van al deze spelers te faciliteren. Willen de lidstaten met de Conventie   echt   veerkrachtige toekomstperspectieven ontwikkelen voor levend immaterieel erfgoed, dan zullen ze evenwel consequent ook het beheer van de Conventie moeten zien te delen. Een belangrijke maar erg gevoelige kaap die daarbij genomen moet worden, is het symbolisch kapitaal dat van UNESCO uitgaat in die mate open te stellen dat alle vitale partners die de Conventie doen werken op alle niveaus volwaardig deelhebbers worden van de UNESCO-Conventie, om hun inzet te bekrachtigen en te vermenigvuldigen.

 

A. BHATTACHARYA

Het integreren van cultuur in actieplannen voor duurzame ontwikkeling. De rol van immaterieel cultureel- erfgoedorganisaties

De UNESCO-Conventie van 2003 en haar operationele richtlijnen omschrijven een belangrijke rol voor niet-gouvernementele organisaties (NGO’s) inzake de bewustmaking omtrent de Conventie, het bevorderen van dialoog, het uitwisselen van praktijkervaring, het ontwikkelen van borgingsprogramma’s en beleid op diverse niveaus,… NGO’s hebben ook een grote rol te spelen om de participatie van erfgoedgemeen- schappen te faciliteren bij het uit- zetten van borgingsmaatregelen. Zij ondersteunen de erfgoedgemeenschappen daarin met hun expertise, tools en capaciteitsopbouw. Reeds in het recente verleden bleken NGO’s rond immaterieel erfgoed (zogenaamde ICH-NGO’s) op allerlei manieren bij te dragen aan de implementatie van de Conventie: ze doen aan capaciteitsopbouw bij erfgoedgemeenschappen, ze werken aan onderzoek en documentatie, ze ontwikkelen identiteitsversterkende activiteiten in cultuurtoerisme, ze faciliteren transnationale creatieve samenwerking, ontwikkelen artistieke organisaties, noem maar op… In deze bijdrage laat Ananya Bhattacharya ons kennismaken met een case van immaterieel-erfgoedwerking onder begeleiding van de NGO “banglanatak dot com” vanuit India waarbij culturele vaardigheden (“skills”) geprofessionaliseerd werden tot een broodwinning voor gemarginaliseerde families en zo een voorbeeld kunnen vormen van sociaal- economisch “empowerment” op basis van cultureel erfgoed. Ze bepleit dat ICH-NGO’s in de nabije toekomst een kritische rol zouden opnemen opdat culturele dimensies aan bod komen in de “Post 2015 Ontwikkelingsagenda”. Cultuur is immers niet geïdentificeerd als doelstelling in de voorgestelde “duurzame ontwikkelingsdoelen” (SDG). Hoewel cultuur expliciet als doel of activator geïntegreerd kan worden in de uiteenlopende duurzame ontwikkelingsdoelen   rond bv. de beëindiging van extreme armoede, het verzekeren van stabiele en vreedzame samenlevingen, het bevorderen van de positie van meisjes en vrouwen en behalen van gendergelijkheid, het faciliteren van kwalitatieve educatie en levenslang leren, het creëren van een wereld- wijde mogelijkheden-scheppende omgeving, enzovoort. Door het delen van kennis, netwerken en bemiddeling kunnen NGO’s effectief het bewustzijn wekken en verhogen bij “decision makers” omtrent het belang van de culturele dimensie van ontwikkelingsbeleid. Via het formuleren van innovatieve culturele ontwikkelingsprojecten met de participatie van traditiedragers en -beoefenaars kunnen ze bijdragen aan lokaal verankerd beleid voor creatieve economieën. De grootste uitdagingen liggen in de mapping van culturele bronnen, het ontwikkelen van indicatoren voor sociaal-economische waarde en winst vanuit erfgoed, creativiteit en culturele bronnen, alsook in het ondersteunen van capaciteitsopbouw voor management in de culturele sector en het versterken van de waardeketen.

 

A. VANDER ZEIJDEN

Bezig zijn met Zwarte Piet. Media, middelaars en de dilemma’s van het makelen van immaterieel erfgoed

Binnen de UNESCO-Conventie ter bescherming van het Immaterieel Erfgoed wordt de laatste jaren veel gesproken over de rol van Niet Gouvernementele Organisaties en hun rol bij het borgen van immaterieel erfgoed. Meestal wordt hun taak vooral gezien als bijdragen aan het implementeren van beschermingsmaatregelen en aan het versterken van de gemeenschappen. Maar volgens een recent IOS rapport zouden deze NGO’s ook een bemiddelende rol kunnen spelen bij het samenbrengen van de verschillende acteurs en belanghebbenden die betrokken zijn bij de dagelijkse praktijk van immaterieel erfgoed. Deze rol van NGO’s lijkt vooral nodig in het geval van “controversieel erfgoed”, dat wil zeggen immaterieel erfgoed waarover verschillend ge- dacht wordt. In dit essay wordt het verhitte debat over Zwarte Piet als uitgangspunt genomen, waarin sommigen ijverden voor afschaffing van deze als discriminatoir er- varen zwart geschminkte helper van Sinterklaas en anderen deze mythologische figuur juist zien als een onvervreemdbaar onderdeel van het Nederlandse Sinterklaasfeest, ja zelfs van het Nederlandse culturele erfgoed.

In zijn artikel analyseert de auteur, in navolging van Richard Kurin, dat de rol van expertinstellingen is gewijzigd door een veranderende rol van de media en door de opkomst van nieuwe, computer gestuurde sociale media, die allerlei groepen in de samenleving in staat stellen deel te nemen aan het maatschappelijk debat en daarmee ook aan het besluitvormingsproces. Aan de ene kant leidt dit tot een enigszins hijgerige sfeer, waarbij de waan van de dag soms de boventoon voert en de journalisten op zoek zijn naar sprekende en resonerende “sound bites”, waardoor de uitersten vaak het   debat domineren. Aan de andere kant leidt het tot een diversificatie van meningsvorming, interessant in verband met het grote belang dat in de UNESCO-Conventie wordt gehecht aan de inbreng van de gemeenschappen. Voor de cultural broker betekent dit dat hij zijn weg moet zien te vinden in een veelvoud aan elkaar betwistende meningen en opinies. Omdat, zeker in het geval van Zwarte Piet, immaterieel erfgoed onontwarbaar verbonden is met politiek en met strijd, dient hij ook reflectief te zijn op zijn eigen rol en inbreng in dit proces van “negotiating identities”. Uiteindelijk dienen echter bruggen te worden gebouwd, waarbij de cultural broker dient te beseffen dat het presenteren van een mogelijk compromis hem kan vervreemden van de betrokkenen die hij juist dichter bij elkaar had willen brengen. Hier past de kanttekening dat het zoeken naar consensus niet hetzelfde is als het voorstellen van een compromis.

 

D. JARVIS

Tradities in een nieuw en uitgebreider kader plaatsen. Immaterieel cultureel erfgoed en “public folklore” in Newfoundland en Labrador

Dit artikel schetst het verband tussen immaterieel cultureel-erfgoedbeleid en public folklore programma’s in de Canadese provincie Newfoundland en Labrador. Het geeft achtergrondinformatie over de ontwikkeling van het immaterieel erfgoedbeleid en beschrijft de vierdelige strategie van de Heritage Foundation van Newfoundland en Labrador om projecten te ontwikkelen die zich richten op de documentatie, de transmissie, de culturele industrie en de praktijk van immaterieel erfgoed. Dit artikel presenteert vervolgens drie case studies om te laten zien hoe culturele makelaars en bemiddelaars deze strategie ten uitvoer brengen. De eerste case studie omvat gemeenschapstraining: initiatieven, waar begeleiders vaardigheden doorgeven die samenhangen met documentatie en het ontwikkelen van workshops. De tweede case study beschrijft lopende projecten die verbindingen willen leggen tussen immaterieel erfgoed en monumentenzorg, met een focus op publieksbetrokkenheid. De derde case study gaat in op de relatie tussen volkscultuur/volksleven en het Folklife Festival, waarin het festival gebruikt wordt om saamhorigheidsbesef te bevorderen.

 

V. FILKÒ

Het gebruik van netwerken in de ontwikkeling van de Nationale Inventaris van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed in Hongarije

Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste stappen die zijn gedaan na de toetreding van Hongarije tot de Conventie van 2003 en hebben geleid tot het opzetten en ontwikkelen van verschillende netwerken ten dienste van de uitvoering van het verdrag. Het vormen van netwerken tussen deskundigen en gemeenschappen werd gebruikt om efficiënter te werken in het proces van identificatie en documentatie van de erfgoed- elementen, alsook om aan te dragen aan de promotie en de transmissie, en de toegang tot immaterieel erfgoed te vergemakkelijken.

 

L. CASTELEYN, E. JANSSENS en J. NEYRINCK

Zes jaar ervaring in immaterieel erfgoedbemiddeling in Vlaanderen (België). Van erfgoedcellen en een immaterieel erfgoednetwerk naar www.immaterieelerfgoed.be

Dit artikel brengt in beeld hoe erfgoedbemiddeling en -makelaardij een cruciale rol spelen in de ontwikkeling van een wijd vertakt netwerk rond immaterieel cultureel erfgoed in Vlaanderen. Spelers zoals geografisch georganiseerde cultureel- erfgoedcellen en thematische expertisecentra voor cultureel erfgoed worden geïntroduceerd en toegelicht. Dit netwerk van erfgoedmakelaars verbindt de ervaringen rond het borgen van immaterieel erfgoed gaande van lokale elementen en gemeenschappen tot landsbrede thema’s en uitdagingen. Ervaringen vanuit de   opgebouwde 6 jaren werkingspraktijk rond immaterieel cultureel erfgoed worden gedeeld. Ten slotte wordt de digitale makelaar www.immaterieelerfgoed.be voorge- steld en krijgen we inzicht in de wijze waarop dit platform de werking en de borging in netwerkverband faciliteert en versterkt.

 

E. DRANI

De rol van niet-gouvernementele organisaties in het levensvatbaar houden en promoten van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed in Oeganda. De Cross-Cultural Foundation van Oeganda

Oeganda is een van de meest cultureel diverse landen ter wereld, maar tegelijk blijkt er weinig waardering noch inzet om het potentieel van die diversiteit aan cultureel erfgoed te erkennen en te valoriseren. De verklaring daarvoor is   te vinden in een samenloop van politieke, (religieus-)culturele en educatieve ontwikkelingen die het land in de recente geschiedenis heeft gekend. Ook in het postkoloniale beleid vormt cultuur geen prioritair aandachtspunt; de armoede is groot en er zijn tot op vandaag erg weinig ontwikkelingen waarin cultuur en erfgoed als bronnen of wegen voor duurzame ontwikkeling geïdentificeerd worden. Sinds Oeganda de UNESCO- Conventie van 2003 in 2009 ratificeerde, liggen er echter kansen om hier verandering in te brengen. De opname van immaterieel erfgoed uit Oeganda op de UNESCO-lijsten werkt als eye-opener en een groeiend aantal NGO’s en Community Museums gaan actief aan de slag rond het borgen van immaterieel erfgoed.

Eén van die NGO’s is de “Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda” die in haar werking sterk inzet op erfgoededucatie vanuit de overtuiging dat bewustzijnsverhoging en de overdracht van erfgoedkennis en -praktijken naar de jonge generaties cruciaal zullen zijn voor een duurzame borging. Het is tegelijk ook een noodzakelijke inzet om het respect en de appreciatie voor de culturele diversiteit in het land ten volle te bevorderen.

De internationale netwerken rond de UNESCO-Conventie (2003) bieden voorts allerlei mogelijkheden en vooruitzichten op uitwisseling van ervaringen, op competentieverhoging en samenwerking omtrent borging van immaterieel erfgoed en duurzame ontwikkeling. Een inzet voor meer coördinatie en bundeling van krachten zou de impact van de culturele activiteiten op nationaal, regionaal en internationaal niveau verder kunnen versterken.

 

V. LAPICCIRELLA ZINGARI

Projecten van erfgoedgemeenschappen als nieuwe uitdagingen voor antropologen. Italiaanse perspectieven op het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed, bemiddeling en culturele makelaardij

Om de huidige discussies in Italië te begrijpen rond het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed, het implementeren van de UNESCO-Conventie van 2003 en vooral de spanningen rond de procedures voor het maken van een nationale inventaris in functie van een kandidatuur voor de opname op de Representatieve Lijst (artikel 16 van de Conventie), is het nuttig de voorgeschiedenis mee in beeld te nemen. Zoals blijkt uit publicaties van Pietro Clemente was er geen goede “match” tussen het officiële erfgoedbeleid, fenomenen die we vandaag immaterieel cultureel erfgoed noemen en die door demo-etno-anthropologen  bestudeerd worden. Demo verwijst naar volk of populatie (zoals in demografie) en de combinatie met etnologie en antropologie leverde dat neologisme op. De beweging van onderop via kleine musea en de rol van antropologen die actief zijn in het veld openen nieuwe perspectieven. De combinatie met andere referentiekaders, naast de erfenis uit de vorige eeuw alsook de net genoemde Conventie van UNESCO of de kaderconventie van de Raad van Europa over de waarde van cultureel erfgoed voor de mensheid, zijn veelbelovend, net als de eerste experimenten in Venetië en Cocullo.

 

Category: 2014, Summaries

1/2014

T. HENS, S. VANDEN BORRE en K. WILS

De oorlog maakt school – Herinneringspraktijken in het Belgische onderwijs na de Eerste Wereldoorlog

Summary: Patriotism kindled in Belgian schools after the Great War

Immediately after the First World War the propagation of a unified and patriotic war narrative was an important issue for the Belgian Government in primary as well as in secondary education. The remem- brance of the Great War was to be cultivated in history classes as well as in other subjects. Textbooks and notebooks, classroom walls, play- grounds and field trips all referred to the war. In many instances, the government encouraged or supported these initiatives. However, two specific ways of remembrance were locally defined: the school commemoration of the fallen former pupils/students and the organization of field trips to the former front region. Both involved different concepts of remembrance. As regards commemorative monu- ments, the main aim was to link different generations to each other. The honoured dead, presented as real individuals, were   supposed to stand as a model for the living, i.e. the students who had died for their fatherland and had behaved courageously should inspire future soldiers. Visiting the front region as another type of remembrance was brought into prominence: it caused abhorrence at the sight of so much destruction and couldn’t possibly be a model for the future. These field trips became an essential part in post-war peace education.

 

S. VAN DER AUWERA en A. SCHRAMME

De Grote oorlog herdacht. Een internationaal perspectief

Summary: The commemoration of the Great War in an international perspective

People from all over the world were active in Flanders Fields during the First World War. Strikingly, the centenary of the Great War has not led to enthusiastic commemorations in all fifty odd countries that were involved. Therefore it is worth exploring in which way national elements figure in these commemorations. The main factors that have contributed to the different attitudes are: a nation’s involvement in the war; the way in which the Great War played a role in the nation-building process; the nation’s military tradition and the citizens’ general interest in commemorative events. Some countries prefer to focus on the terrible war itself while other nations bring the peace message into special prominence. The specific data – obtained through desk research and expert interviews – also led to the conclusion that memory and commemoration are a historic as well as a social construct serving contemporary agendas.

 

J. LECHANTEUR en J. LOOKMAN

Project Onderdak in Nunspeet – Voortleven van Vluchtoord Nunspeet in de 21e eeuw

Summary: The World War I refugee camp Nunspeet recollected in the 21st century

Because the Netherlands remained neutral during the First World War neither this war nor Armistice Day has been well remembered in comparison with the official remembrance days of the Second World War (each year on the 4th and 5th of May). But 2008 was an important anniversary worldwide and it motivated some inhabitants of Nunspeet, a Dutch town with a refugee camp for Belgians (‘Vluchtoord Nunspeet’), to focus on this interesting item of local history. They organised a commemoration of ‘Vluchtoord Nunspeet’ at the local cemetery in front of the memorial monument that had been erected in 1919 in memory of the refugees who had died during their stay in the camp. On the same day they opened a photo exhibition about the life of these refugees. They also presented the educational cultural heritage project ‘Onderdak in Nunspeet’ (‘Shelter in Nunspeet’) for primary school pupils. In this way they hope to promote the interest of students, teachers and tourists in local history.

 

A. VAN DER ZEIJDEN

Sporen van de Eerste Wereldoorlog in Nederland – Het Vissersmonument in Egmond aan Zee

Summary: Traces of the First World War in the Netherlands: the Fishermen’s Monument in Egmond aan Zee

In the Netherlands there were not many war victims thanks to its neutrality. The Great War apparently passed rather unnoticed, which explains why there is – generally speaking – no culture of remembrance of this war. But the fishermen in the villages on the North Sea shores (Katwijk, Scheveningen and Egmond aan Zee) had to deal with heavy losses, caused by the British sea mines. The losses were so immense that immediately after the war a cult of remembrance started and the communities erected special monuments in grief. The peculiarity of the war   monument in Egmond aan Zee is that it is the most impressive, but the least known. The Fishermen’s Monument has the distinctive religious features found in many other European World War I monuments. The monument in the form of a cross with three praying females: grief countered by a vague sense of religious hope.

During and after the Second World War little attention was paid to these First World War monuments because there were far more victims in the North Sea during the Second World War. Some World War I monuments were transformed into World War II ones. But since the last decade of the 20th century things have changed. The old fishermen’s monuments have known a remarkable revival and have become part of a new cult of remembrance. Fishermen of all ages and all wars who never came back have been brought into focus. It is worth mentioning that this new trend got its momentum in a time that Egmond transformed itself from a traditional fishing community into a touristic attraction, i.e. fishermen folklore gave a new meaning to the old World War I monuments in the Netherlands.

 

Category: 2014, Summaries