Category Archives: Summaries


Ilaria Rosetti, Marc Jacobs & Anna Pereira Roders
Erfgoed en duurzaamheid. Een literatuuronderzoek en reflectie over de rol van participatieve erfgoedpraktijken in duurzame ontwikkelin


Heritage and Sustainability
A review of recent literature and a reflection on the role of participatory
heritage practices in sustainable development Heritage & Sustainability is an emerging multidisciplinary field.
In the last decade, many studies have been carried out to define the role(s) of culture in achieving sustainability goals. Among them, the COST Network introduced the triple concept of culture in, for and as sustainability, suggesting that culture can play a self-standing, a mediating and a transformative role in achieving sustainable development.
Further research has been done on the contribution of cultural heritage
practices to environmental, social, economic and cultural dimensions of
sustainability, and after 2016 to the UN 2030 Agenda and beyond. In this field, multi-stakeholders’ participation commonly represents an indicator of social sustainability, although, recent research suggests a broader impact of participatory heritage practices on other dimensions. Does multistakeholders’
participation in heritage practices play a role in achieving broader sustainability goals? This paper frames participatory heritage practices in a broad sustainability perspective, through a systematic literature review. Observing linkages with the framework developed by the COST Network, results show that it is possible to identify three roles of participatory heritage practices in achieving sustainable development: participation as right, as driver and as enabler. It is concluded that participatory heritage practices can play multiple roles in addressing sustainability, beyond being an
indicator of its social dimension.
Moreover, beside participatory heritage practices contributing to the sustainable development of natural and cultural resources, their governance, cities and communities, they also represent a key success factor for the continuity of sustainabilityoriented heritage practices.

Keywords: multi-stakeholders’ participation, heritage, sustainability,
systematic literature review

Category: 2020, Summaries



Safeguarding Intangible Cultural
Heritage and Museums
A Crossing of Several Projects and Trajectories

Marc Jacobs, Jorijn Neyrinck and Evdokia Tsakiridis

In this concise institutional introduction text, guest editors Jorijn
Neyrinck, Evdokia Tsakiridis and Marc Jacobs contextualise the publication of the special issue of the journal Volkskunde on Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage and Museums as a scholarly result of cooperation between actors in the European Intangible Cultural Heritage and Museums Project, moderated by NGO Workshop intangible heritage (BE), and the UNESCO chair on critical heritage studies and the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Keywords: UNESCO 2003 Convention, Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage,
Museums, Museology, Heritage studies

Het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed en musea
Een kruispunt van verschillende projecten en trajecten
Jorijn Neyrinck, Evdokia Tsakiridis en Marc Jacobs

In deze beknopte institutionele inleiding, contextualiseren de
gastredacteurs Jorijn Neyrinck, Evdokia Tsakiridis en Marc Jacobs
onderhavig themanummer van het Tijdschrift Volkskunde over het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed en musea als het academisch resultaat van een samenwerking tussen actoren in het Europese Intangible Cultural Heritage and Museums Project, getrokken door de organisatie Werkplaats immaterieel erfgoed (BE), en de UNESCO Leerstoel voor kritische
erfgoedstudies en het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Keywords: UNESCO 2003 Conventie voor het borgen van immaterieel cultureel erfgoed, Museum, Museologie, Erfgoedstudies

Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage and Museums
A Special Issue

Evdokia Tsakiridis, Marc Jacobs and Jorijn Neyrinck

This article introduces the special issue of the journal Volkskunde dedicated to the subject of safeguarding intangible cultural heritage in relation with museums. Guest editors Marc Jacobs, Jorijn Neyrinck and Evdokia Tsakiridis situate the different contributions and case studies made by a range of authors within the overall setup of the publication. The challenge and approach throughout the volume is (how) to build and cross bridges between the living heritage field and the museum sector and museology, identifying
intersections and occasions where the twain can meet.

Keywords: Intangible cultural heritage, UNESCO 2003 Convention, Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage, Museums, Museology, Heritage studies

Words Matter…
The Arsenal and the Repertoire: UNESCO, ICOM and European Frameworks

Marc Jacobs

This article presents concepts like “the Archive” and “the Repertoire” (D. Taylor), obligatory passage points (M. Callon), “boundary objects” (S.Star) and the metaphor of the “Blue Arsenal” as useful tools to explore the impact of the Basic Texts of the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. It zooms in on the connection between Operational Directives 108 and 109. Furthermore, new European heritage policy instruments are introduced, next to reflections on the debates on the operational
definition of what a museum is according to ICOM, and why the 2003 UNESCO Convention’s paradigm should not be ignored in this debate.

Keywords: Safeguarding intangible heritage, ICOM museum definition, museums, Council of Europe, UNESCO, Boundary objects, Appropriate vocabulary

Le patrimoine culturel immatériel a-t-il une place au musée?
Cécile Duvelle

The expression ‘intangible cultural heritage’ (ICH) has now become widely recognized and used. More and more museums are integrating ICH into their exhibitions, thus expanding their offer to the public while participating in safeguarding. Some institutions, however, believe they integrate or safeguard ICH,but they do it on the basis of an inaccurate understanding of its very nature.The question of the place that ICH can take within museums thus remains a largely open field of reflection. In order to do justice to this very particular heritage category, creative, innovative approaches are required.

Keywords: Intangible cultural heritage, Museums, UNESCO 2003 Convention,
Innovative approaches, UNESCO Secretariat

Discursive Crossings in Liminal Spaces
Amareswar Galla

Could museums become civic spaces for Safeguarding Intangible Heritage is a timely question to address, especially as the International Council of Museums is currently debating the definition of a museum. Modernity has categorised, along with coloniality, heritage formations into binaries such as natural and cultural, movable and immovable, and tangible and intangible. These are being questioned over the past two decades largely focussing on indigeneity and cultural diversity. Demonstration projects are important
to interrogate establishment notions and their hegemonic positioning. That is exactly what the Intangible Cultural Heritage and Museums Project has been able to do, open the pathways for rethinking European heritage discourse. It has wider global implications.
This paper raises certain key questions anticipating that the next decade would be the colonising period for rethinking the institution of the museum. Transformations would need to be necessarily situated within the broader post coloniality of sustainable heritage development addressing the triangulation of Covid-19 and post pandemic realities, environmental degradation and climate crisis and gross inequities exposed by the
Black Lives Matter movement in various manifestations across the world.

Keywords: ICOM, UNESCO heritage discourse, Decolonising heritage, Museums, Intangible
cultural heri- tage

Participation in Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage Viewed as a Human Rights Imperative
Janet Blake

The 2003 UNESCO Convention for Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) is clearly situated within a human rights context, though putting these aspirations into practice can prove challenging, in particular the notion of participation that is promoted by the Convention. More recently, the significance of heritage to local actors has become much better understood and international law now calls for a greater democratization of the heritage protection paradigm, in particular through community participation in its identification, safeguarding and management. The question of how real participation by various actors – heritage bearers and associated groups and
communities, civil society, private sector actors, and others – can be ensured touches very directly on human rights related to ICH safeguarding. Museums have the potential to play a very specific role in ensuring that this aspect of the 2003 Convention is put into practice and this article attempts to locate this role of museums within this broader context of the relevant human rights.

Keywords: Intangible cultural heritage, Safeguarding, Museums, Participation,
Human rights

On Levels, (Politics of) Scale, Cases and Networking
Marc Jacobs

This article explores notions like ‘levels’, ‘scales’ or ‘case studies’ as useful tools to study the impact of the Basic Texts of the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. It draws attention to ‘politics of scale’ and questionable labels like ‘Eurocentric’. It also zooms in on the potential problems and effects of using the overall results framework and reporting, illustrated with examples from and beyond Bulgaria.

Keywords: Politics of scale, levels, Safeguarding intangible heritage,
Overall results framework, Eurocentric, Bulgaria

Squaring the Circle?
In Search of the Charateristics of the Relationship between Intangible Cultural Heritage, Museums, Europe and the EU

Hanna Schreiber

The paper seeks to analyse the complex and evolving relationship between intangible cultural heritage (ICH), museums, Europe as a geographical region and the European Union as a regional organization. With the aim to understand this relationship and find relevant quantitative and qualitative data the number of inscriptions stemming from European countries (and separately from the EU member states) to the Representative List of ICH is analysed, as one of proofs of the interest shown by States Parties to the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Inscriptions from the
EU members are also examined by paying special attention to the way they incorporate museums and the role ascribed to museums visible in nomination files. Also examined is how the EU defines ‘intangible cultural heritage’ in practice, e.g. via diverse funds and programmes, with the aim to see how close (or how far) its interpretations of what is ‘intangible heritage’ are to the 2003 Convention’s definition and what is the place provided by the EU for museums promoting ICH. At the end the paper presents the challenges and possible traps that might be encountered in the process of including ICH in the current EU and museums heritage policies and actions. In order to provide a clear referential framework, the research is based on an interdisciplinary approach, involving the legal, institutional, and oplitical dimensions. In terms of the sources used, information was drawn from international governmental (EU, UNESCO) and non-governmental organizations (NEMO, Europeana) primary sources – e.g. conventions (with a focus on the 2003 Convention), institutional agreements, directives, policy documents and statements, operational directives, open calls for funds.

Keywords: Museum, UNESCO, Intangible cultural heritage, The European Union,
NEMO, Europeana, European funds, Representative List

Is ‘Bottom-Up’ a Condescending Expression?
Tales of Indignation and Reflexivity

Filomena Sousa

In this essay, the author discusses the empowerment of practitioners of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) and, from a conceptual perspective, the bottom-up model. To contextualize this reflection, she refers to two episodes, ephemeral and apparently irrelevant, but which helped her to rethink concepts and procedures that we often consider ‘definitive’ or even ‘unquestionable’. One of these episodes is related to her collaboration on the ICH Inventory held in the municipality of Elvas (2013-2014), in Portugal. The other episode refers to a journalistic report about the presence of a Choral Group of Cante Alentejano in Paris, in the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2014, when this cultural expression was inscribed in the Representative List.

Keywords: Intangible cultural heritage, Bottom-up model; ICH practitioners; ICH Inventory

Why Museology and Museums Should – more than ever – be Part of the Heritage Paradigm…

Marc Jacobs

Why museology should no longer be a part of heritage is the title of an article published in 2016 by the French museologist Serge Chaumier. This contribution reacts to the arguments presented in that article and argues that the interaction between museums and the rest of ‘heritage’ and between museology and heritage studies is needed more than ever. The conclusions of a recent survey on museums and safeguarding intangible heritage of the French Ministry of Culture and of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and Museums Project are presented as a counterarguments and as an incentive not to ignore the paradigm of the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Keywords: Museums, Museology, heritage studies, Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage

Le PCI et les musées
Quand l’esprit vient à la matière sous l’arbre à palabres

Florence Pizzorni Itié

In the post-colonial era, museums of the 21st century are committed to
rethinking their roles and functions in society, the nature and meaning of the objects they preserve and the role of expertise. The new forms of museums that are developing in the global cities, by the virtue of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) that embraces diversity, are spaces open to the political and cultural repertoires of continents that seem absent in the old museum world, stemming from a colonial Europe.
Currently we are experiencing a shock in our cultural and digitized societies, risking the standardization of culture. Thanks to ICH entering into the museums, there are platforms for conviviality and multiplicity of approaches to knowledge through physical proximity and verbal and sensory confrontation. The museum that is open to ICH may be the ‘palaver tree’ of future societies.

Keywords: Intangible cultural heritage, Museums, Safeguarding, emotions, Memory, Reciprocity

Bridging the Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage Practices

Tamara Nikolić -Derić

The heritage sector is in constant change and quest for reinforcing its position and relevance in today’s societies. The more advanced the practice, studies and the debates, the more evident the challenge in adopting interdisciplinary, holistic and participatory approaches in preserving and safeguarding heritage. Reflecting on the legacy of studies related to heritage sites, museums, folkloristic and intangible cultural heritage, the author addresses some key issues generating the collaborative unease between these heritage practices and explores further the ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums and the UNESCO 2003 Convention’s Operational Directives as starting point to disclose the intersections and thus meeting points of the museum and intangible cultural heritage sector on a theoretical and practical level
framing it within the ‘third space’ concept and contributing to the reinforcement of future-oriented heritage practices.

Keywords: Museums, Intangible cultural heritage, Safeguarding, Heritage sector, Third space, Intersections

Reenactment and Intangible Heritage
Strategies for Embodiment and Transmission in Museums

Sarah Kenderdine

This article is focused on the interplay of different forms of intangibility (living heritage and reenactment heritage) and the way technologically enabled practices might reshape the role and transformation of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) in museums. The article introduces three cultural heritage digitisation research projects and their associated museological interventions. The examples chosen for this chapter include the living heritage of South Chinese martial arts in Hong Kong, and the ritual reenactments arising from the canonical Confucian performance manual YiLi from the Book of Etiquette and Rites. Both projects are ongoing and were initiated in 2012. The third project
is an interactive reperformance of the poetic oeuvre of Edwin Thumboo, Singapore’s leading living poet, dating to 2013/2018 in two distinct environments/interfaces. Through use of multimodal encoding, algorithmic reenactment, recombinatory narrative and kinaesthetic digital interfaces, these three projects signal important new forms of museological experience arising from embodied cognition that have the potential to transmit ICH in museums.

Keywords: Reenactment, New museology, Encoding, Digitization, Interaction,
Reperformance, Intangible

Past and Future Presencing in Museums
Four Cases of Engaging with Intangible Heritage from the Netherlands

Sophie Elpers

In the context of the current rapid transformations in the world, the roles of museums are rethought resulting in museums’ engagement in discussing current questions and challenges of human societies. Hand in hand goes the postulation that museums should engage people as cultural participants and co-create together with individuals and communities. Which choices do museums in the Netherlands make when they decide to work with contemporary intangible cultural heritage and its bearers? Which roles do constructions of the past and ideas about the future as well as their entanglements play when working with intangible cultures? This paper argues that in the museum sector broad time alignments are critical when engaging with intangible cultural heritage. The multidirectional relationships between the past,
present and future that museums create and use when working with intangible cultural heritage will have to be taken into account more profoundly in the discourse about building bridges across, and collaborating between, the sectors.

Keywords: Intangible cultural heritage, Museums, Time alignments, Relationships between past, Present and future, Past presencing, The Netherlands

Avant-Garde & Status Quo The FeliXart Museum and its Paradoxical Legacy
Sergio Servellón and Leen Van de Weghe

In this article, we present the evolution of the FeliXart Museum from an
object-driven monographic museum to a two-track project pivoting around the legacy of the Belgian painter-farmer Felix De Boeck (1898-1995). The particularity of his involvement in the avant-garde is being researched not only for his art but also for his way of living inspired by a revolutionary time where abstraction, ecology, and new forms of organizing the world were being preached. The heritage ensemble of a museum, a farm, and an orchard seek also the inclusion of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) to create local cohesion, building a participatory track to the museological functioning. This experiment is directly applicable within the Flemish cultural heritage policy where a top-bottom approach of ICH and museums is favored.

Keywords: Art, Intangible cultural heritage, Heritage ensemble, Museum, transformation, Participation

In Rural Villages and the Suburbs Italian Experiences with Museums and Ecomuseums
Valentina Lapiccirella Zingari,
Pietro Clemente and Tommaso Lussu, Alessandra Broccolini and
Claudio Gnessi

Two heritage-making processes, from very different contexts of rural and urban Italy,improve our vision and understanding of the connection between the museum paradigm/experience and the intangible cultural heritage (ICH) safeguarding challenges. On one hand, the Casa Lussu experience shows the importance of local museums as building blocks of a traditional weaving revitalization project. On the other hand, the Casilino Ecomuseum is an example of a communitybased ICH process in an urban context, and the pertinence of the ecomuseum paradigm to deal with such complexity.

Keywords: Intangible cultural heritage, Urban, Local, Contemporary, Participation, Suburbs

Szopka Krakowska
The Nativity Scene Tradition and the Museum of Kraków

Andrzej Iwo Szoka

The nativity scene (szopka) tradition in Kraków was inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2018. It is the first Polish inscription on this list of UNESCO. The tradition has its roots in 19th century Kraków. Since 1937 it has been safeguarded by the city council and by the museum of the city. For decades the museum has supported the bearers of tradition and built a collection of 270 Kraków Nativity Scenes. But
it also had an influence on the modification of the phenomenon or even was at the origin of these changes. An important factor that should be considered was the relationship between the bearers of tradition and museologists. During the communist era in Poland, the museum seemed a safe haven for the nativity scene makers. The article presents a brief history of the cooperation of the museum professionals with the crib makers in the last eighty years in safeguarding the nativity scene tradition in Kraków and looks forward to the challenges in the next years.

Keywords: Nativity scenes, Representative List of Intangible Cultural
Heritage, UNESCO, City museum

Transforming, Not Saving Intangible Cultural Heritage, Museums and/or the World
Marc Jacobs and Jorijn Neyrinck

This article considers the content of this special issue of Volkskunde (n° 3, 2020) in wider frames of reference. The publication is partly a follow-up on a previous special issue (n° 3, 2014) of this journal that focused on cultural brokerage and safeguarding intangible heritage. The theme and the articles of the current special issue are situated and discussed in a broader context of other scholarly literature, international debates, initiatives and project results (in particular the Intangible Cultural Heritage and Museums Project) on museums and safeguarding intangible cultural heritage, as well as in the subsequent phases, and even epistemic generations, of the paradigm of the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Keywords: Safeguarding, Transforming, Intangible cultural heritage,
2003 UNESCO Convention, Museums, Museology, IMP

Category: 2020, Summaries


Nele Wynants, Wetenschap op de kermis. De verspreiding van technologie, kennis en spektakel in Belgische provinciesteden tijdens het fin-de-siècle


This article will discuss the role of itinerant show people in the
popularization of science and technology in the history of the Belgian fairground. Through a number of case studies at the fair in Ghent of 1892, I will demonstrate how fairground artists were key in the introduction of new technology, the popularization of knowledge about the human body and the
dissemination of a visual culture amongst ordinary people across the social spectrum. The article provides a brief history of the fair and then focuses on three specific areas: spectacular technology in mechanical theatres, the body as a spectacle in anatomical cabinets and history and geography in travelling museums and panopticums. Admittedly, the scientific status of itinerant show people may well raise questions and was already being debated at the time. Nevertheless, as I will argue, they have strongly influenced the daily lives of 19th-century citizens and workers, as they have provided access to information, technology and visual culture to all layers of society and they have spread popular science to all corners of the country. Their educational discourse responded to an elementary curiosity about
technology, the functioning of the human body and newly discovered and colonized continents.

Category: 2020, Summaries


Francesca Blockeel: Portugal en zijn kolonies. Dekolonisering en teruggave van kunst

Summary: Portugal and Its Colonies. Decolonisation and Restitution of Art
In the sixteenth century Portugal was one of the great powers and, with Spain, a precursor in colonizing areas in Asia, America and Africa. Its imperium covers 500 years and it controlled colonies that now are situated in 53 different countries.
Nevertheless, in the actual debate about restitution of colonial art Portugal is almost never mentioned.This contribution starts with a concise overview of how Portugal
handled its colonies in the three continents consecutively, along with the kind of artefacts that were brought to the metropolis, Portugal as the mother country. As the discussion in Europe focalizes mostly on African art, the Portuguese colonies in Africa
are studied here more thoroughly. In the second half we sketch the current situation of restitution of colonial art in Portugal. First we examine the main position of museum directors and secondly what is going on in the press and on social media. It is obvious that the national identity of the Portuguese, still mainly based on the colonial empire, plays an .important role.

Lies Busselen; De tijd haalt ons in. Hoe het restitutiedebat een lens biedt op een verschuiving in de ‘ontkenning van gelijktijdigheid’

Summary: Time is Catching Up With Us. How the restitution debate offers a lens on a shift in the “denial of coevalness”

This article offers a theoretical reflection on the unequally shared heritage of former colonies and metropolises. I apply Johannes Fabian’s concept of “denial of coevalness”, a way to see “the other” in another time frame, to the restitution
debate concerning colonial collections in the Belgian and international contexts. The article outlines the historical process of the formation of international legal frameworks in relation to the restitution debate in Belgium in a section that explores the political dimension of these issues.A subsequent museological section examines colonial collections in current world museums, focusing on the Africa Museum in Tervuren and
the National Institute of Museums of Congo in Kinshasa. The article shows how African states remain absent in the Western restitution debate and argues for the “recognition of coevalness” between states in order to achieve reciprocal dialogues. Finally, the article argues that political recognition of the colonial past in Belgium is essential for the
recognition of coevalness of Congo.

Elisabeth Dekker: =tano Toba Saga.. Een menselijk verhaal en het recht

Summary: The Tano Toba Saga. A Human Story and the Law
This essay explores new approaches to reflecting on the future of colonial collections by considering the legal position of former colonies in tandem with a discussion of the Tano Toba Saga, a work of art exhibited as part of the exhibition Power & Other Things:
Indonesia & Art 1835-Now. Drawing on archival materials and cultural property laws, this article lays bare some troublesome dynamics pertaining to contemporary property
rights. In the article I argue that those property rights are marked by deeply ingrained distinctions and racial stratifications pertaining to  who is considered human: a painful
legacy that continues to haunt colonial collections. To move beyond such colonial structures, this article highlights how the Tano Toba Saga provides a legal subject historically excluded from humanity, with a voice, a story, and a name.

Valerie Mashman: ‘Looted in an expedition against the Madangs’. Decolonizing history for the museum

Summary:Een toevallig onderzoek van het originele eerste acquisitieboek in het Sarawak Museum onthulde de term “geplunderd tijdens een expeditie” die werd gebruikt om een set van zes huishoudelijke objecten te beschrijven uit een langhuis,
verworven in 1903, van een aftredende Brooke-beheerder, C.A. Bampfylde. Dit leidde tot een zoektocht van een jaar naar deze objecten, op de schappen van het depot van het Sarawak Museum en in de archieven  en opslagplaatsen van het Pitt Rivers
Museum, Oxford. Deze objecten – over het hoofd gezien door curatoren en zelden tentoongesteld – komen uit de huishaarden van de longhouses. Het betreft huisraad en daarom onwaarschijnlijke trofeeën van een  orlogsexpeditie. De aanwezigheid
van deze objecten in het Sarawak Museum roept dus twee vragen op:waarom zou huisraad als geroofde objecten worden geschonken, en waarom zou een ambtenaar ze
hebben bewaard en weggegeven bij pensionering? Om antwoorden op deze vragen te suggereren door de herkomst van deze objecten te onderzoeken, volgt dit artikel de
carrière van de schenker-verzamelaar.Het analyseert tevens de betekenis van de term “geplunderd” en de implicaties voor het gebruik ervan, en  e daaropvolgende reconstructie van de oorlogsexpeditie waarin deze items werden verworven. Aan de ene kant vertegenwoordigen deze objecten een overwinning in oorlogsvoering voor
het Brookeregime en aan de andere kant biedt de aanwezigheid van deze vijf objecten in het Sarawak Museum de mogelijkheid om mondelinge geschiedenissen en koloniale
rapporten te analyseren om de context te beschrijven en te reconstrueren wat er zou kunnen zijn gebeurd met de oorspronkelijke eigenaren, met name vrouwen die vechten om te overleven en worden onderworpen aan het niet aflatende geweld van strafexpedities. Deze objecten dienen als een katalysator voor de stem van de Badeng via mondelinge overlevering over keuzevrijheid, weerstand en onafhankelijkheid tijdens het Brookeregime. Tegelijkertijd wordt de tentoonstelling van deze objecten een complete set van zes, met de mogelijke uitlening of teruggave van 538 | summaries
de geplunderde hoed van het Pitt Rivers Museum.

Jonas van Mulder:Gedeeld erfgoed? Archiefgemeenschappen en de restitutie van kennis

Summary: Shared Heritage? Archival Communities and the Restitution of Knowledge
This paper reviews significant developments in archival science and practice that can potentially offer valuable insights into current debates about decolonizing heritage
collections. In both the professional archival field and amongst archival communities, the calls for partnerships in building and curating archives, expanded digital exchanges,
and greater transparency of archival practices have gained momentum in recent decades. As evidenced by an ever expanding body of research and applied approaches, ‘the archive’ has been zealously mobilized as an analytical and experimental instrument for both analyzing and counteracting the colonization of
knowledge, epistemic regimes, and cultural and social exclusivity inherent in conventional archival praxis. In addition to highlighting a sample of international studies and initiatives, this article also identifies some potential pitfalls and offers observations concerning the impact of digitization, the importance of collaborative research, and the value of dissonance.

Willy Durinx, Paul Catteeuw en Roselyne Francken: De collectie Hans Christoffel in het MAS Antwerpen

Summary: The Hans Christoffel Collection of the MAS Museum (Antwerp)
Hans Christoffel (1865-1962), a young Swiss, enlisted in the Dutch colonial
army at the end of the 19th century. He rose quickly through the ranks to
become the most revered and reviled officer active in the bloodstained
Dutch East Indies. Later, he seemingly turned his life around full circle to
become a pacifist. During and after his service years, he assembled a vast
collection of ethnographic artefacts. After a long-term loan, Christoffel
sold his collection to the City of Antwerp in 1958. Financial concerns
undoubtedly played an important role in this decision, but the sale may
also have been a final endeavour to physically distance himself from the
tangible memories of a violent past. Since the permanent closure of the
Antwerp Ethnographic Museum in 2009, the collection is accommodated
in the MAS, which opened its doors in 2011. The MAS can boast a rich
exhibition history of the Christoffel collection. Moreover, whenever
artefacts from the collection were put on display, the museum did not fail to
refer to the blood-drenched colonial context in which it was partly formed.
In the enigmatic maze that is the MAS online database, however, the artefacts gathered by the Swiss military man are nearly unfindable. A better online visibility of the collection is needed to reach Indonesian stakeholders
and cultural heritage partners as well as an international audience. In 2020, the MAS will therefore create a presentation of some hundred pieces of controversial provenance from the Christoffel collection on the online
platform Google Arts & Culture. And maybe this presentation could lead to talks between the MAS and the source community about a possible
restitution of stolen heritage objects, amongst others important five flags
from Aceh. Many questions will however have to be answered before a
possible restitution will be reality.

Jos van Beurden: Niet alles is roofkunst – Wat te doen met andere koloniale collecties?

Summary: Not Everything is War Booty.  What To Do With Other Colonial
This essay examines museum de-accessioning patterns in the Netherlands and Belgium to address the extent to which institutions have attempted to return objects to their countries of origin. In particular, this article spotlights several case studies involving more extensive de-accessioning: the Nijmeegs Volkenkundig Museum, the museum of Radboud University Nijmegen (which was closed in 2005, and that of the municipal Museum Nusantara Delft (which closed in 2013). The Radboud University Nijmegen
Museum’s 11,000 mostly-Indonesian items consisted of several collections.
These included its own small 540 | summaries collection, as well as several “subcollections” loaned by missionaries as well as the Beijens collection of
approximately 3,000 items, a loan from the municipality of Nijmegen.
This essay reveals the often troublesome journeys of these subcollections.
The majority of them have remained in the public domain.
An unknown number of items were offered for sale in the art market.
Some have disappeared. With few exceptions, almost no objects have
been returned to their countries or regions of origin. There were neither
networks nor know-how to facilitate this option. Return was not yet in the
air. This is a weakness, that indicates the need for a new approach.
When the Nusantara Museum Delft was obliged to deaccession its
collection of 18,500 items, the idea of return was immediately considered.
But it was challenging to convince the government of Indonesia to accept
this seemingly-generous Dutch offer. A new Director-General for Culture
at the Ministry of Education and Culture in Jakarta resisted the Dutch
return-offer. Apparently, part of the reason for diminished Indonesian
interest in the return was that the Netherlands had not offered a full
collection return: the Netherlands had set aside over 3,500 objects
for the National Collection of the Netherlands and for the Collection
Delft. The Nusantara Museum had urgently to look for interested
museums in the Netherlands, or in the rest of Europe and in other
countries than Indonesia in Asia. Eventually, Indonesia accepted 1,500
objects, selected by their own officials. At the end of 2019, the selected
objects were still in the Netherlands. The essay makes several concluding
observations: In cases involving deaccessioning colonially-collected
objects, we must reconsider regulations requiring that the Dutch
National Collection be offered first consideration as a new home for such deaccessioned objects. In return negotiations, Dutch heritage officials should be more sensitive to cultural differences. Whereas we might presume post-colonial nations are equally interested in how the objects were required, this is not universally the case. Throughout the return-process, Indonesia was not interested how the objects had been acquired (e.g. whether via war booty or other means). Rather, Indonesia sought objects that could fill holes in its own national collection.
Finally, Dutch museum officials were unable to achieve their preference
for the objects to be returned to regional museums in Indonesia, as its counterpart in these negotiations was a sovereign state with its own

Placide Mumbembele Sanger: La restitution des biens culturels en situation (pos)coloniale au Congo

Summary: De teruggave van cultureel erfgoed in (post)koloniale situaties in Congo: tussen politieke kwesties en behoud van het erfgoed
Macrons toespraak over de teruggave van Afrikaans erfgoed heeft in
sommige musea, in de wereld van handelaars, verzamelaars en in de westerse publieke opinie emoties losgemaakt. Opmerkelijk is echter het feit dat het debat voor het eerst door een Europees staatshoofd wordt aangezwengeld. Wat de Democratische Republiek Congo en haar voormalige koloniale macht België betreft, eisten sommige Congolese politieke leiders in 1960, in het kader van de onafhankelijkheidsonderhandelingen, de repatriëring van de collecties
van het Belgisch Kongo Museum in Tervuren, dat zich daartegen had verzet. Als België in de jaren zeventig een honderdtal voorwerpen
terugstuurde naar Congo, een honderdtal voorwerpen die het beschouwt als een schenking aan de Zaïrese autoriteiten, is het een overwinning dankzij de toespraken van president Mobutu in 1973 op het derde congres van de International Association of Art Critics in Kinshasa en op de 28ste Algemene Vergadering van de Verenigde Naties in New York over de teruggave van cultureel erfgoed aan Afrikaanse landen. Anderzijds wordt in dit artikel uitgelegd dat, ondanks de belangstelling die Macrons toespraak
over de teruggave in de wereld heeft gewekt, het debat in de DRC nog
niet open is in de academische, politieke of publieke opinie.
Dit artikel herinnert eraan dat het verzoek om teruggave van culturele
goederen door Afrikaanse landen gerechtvaardigd is. Ook wordt een
beroep gedaan op kunstwerken om te circuleren tussen het Noorden en
het Zuiden vice versa, wat dialoog en samenwerking tussen musea vereist.
Een van de essentiële voorwaarden voor deze dialoog, zoals Sarr en
Savoye in hun verslag zo goed hebben beschreven, is ook om de
betrekkingen opnieuw te overwegen en zo een “nieuwe relationele ethiek”
tussen Afrika en Europa te creëren.

Category: 2019, Summaries


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Het uitkoken van de narheid en zijn verwantschap met de geneeskunst en de alchemistische beeldtaal

Summary: The Vaporisation of Folly and its similarity with early modern medicine
and alchemical discourse

The Vaporisation of Folly [‘Het uitkoken van de narheid’] fits within a framework of early modern evocations of the healing and makeability of men who are overcome by temporal madness,stupidity or narheid. This motif, portraying a wonder-working doctor
attempting to expel negative qualities from the patient’s brain by means of a furnace or a distillation device, has appeared in Western European visualculture since the end of the 16th century. Firstly, this treatise provides iconographic analyses of the most
influential narheid compositions: De narrensnijder (1596) by J.T. de Bry, Le médecin guarissant Phantasie purgeant aussi par drogues la folie (c. 1600) by M. Greuter and Doctor Wurmbrandt (1648). In addition, it elaborates on the subsequent recasting of this motif by second-generation artists so as to reveal content shifts in its use.
Such examination demonstrates that this burlesque operation iconography functioned as a blanc canvas on which the (often politically or religiously tinted) vicissitudes of everyday life were projected. Finally, this treatise offers detailed insight into the contextual meaning of the phantasmagoria that were believed to be expelled during the vaporisation procedure. The narheid imagery depicts an internal healing process; contemporary alchemical discourse and medical doctrine therefore need to be taken into account when studying this motif. Artists drew inspiration from such sources on a theoretical as well as a visual level. The Vaporisation of Folly bears a number of visual similarities to contemporary iconography  of exorcism rituals and the treatment of syphilis by fumigation. Theoretical analogies lie mainly in the belief that insanity and melancholy are caused by an excess of cerebral fluid.

Category: 2019, Summaries


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Erfgoed toegankelijk maken voor een divers publiek. Multiperspectief in het erfgoedonderwijs

Making heritage accessible to a diverse audience

Multiperspectivity in heritage education

This article presents an instrument for the screening of programme sets for heritage education putting the focus on multiperspectivity. It contributes to the need of a sustainable cooperation between formal education and institutions of heritage education. In a society with increasing diversity it appeals to multiperspectivity by bringing up perspectives of different ethniccultural groups, also those of less visible ones. The Heritage Education Multiperspectivity Matrix (HEMmatrix v1.0) is based first of all on the core objectives of history education, in particular historical thinking, and secondly on ‘Culture in the Mirror’ an application of the theory of culture of Barend van Heusden to the Flemish context. Starting from solid theory a blueprint of the matrix was established and critically altered by experts. Further it was tested for screening existing programme sets for heritage education. In a next phase the matrix was validated as a design instrument. That’s why we name the presented version of the matrix v1.0. Opportunities and limitations of the instrument are discussed.


Category: 2019, Summaries



La place et les usages du culinaire

De plaats van en vertogen over culinaire cultuur in de regionalistische Franse tijdschriften van de Belle Epoque (einde 19de- begin 20ste eeuw)

In welke mate heeft de regionalistische beweging in Frankrijk begin twintigste eeuw bijgedragen aan de ‘territorialisaton’ van verschillende gerechten en producten, of anders uitgedrukt, aan de totstandkoming van streekspecialiteiten? De invloed van deze beweging wordt regelmatig aangehaald door onderzoekers, maar is nooit echt geanalyseerd en tevens ontbreekt een klare chronologie. Deze bijdrage steunt op de analyse van meerdere tijdschriften, uitgegeven tijdens de Belle Epoque, een periode
waarin het regionalisme opkwam en confirmeerde.
Deze bijdrage toont aan dat de meeste tijdschriften in de bestudeerde periode relatief weinig aandacht besteedden aan eetcultuur. Er zijn daarbij twee benaderingen: een eerste meer emotioneel en affectief, schakelde elementen uit de eetcultuur in bij het
creëren van een identiteit; een tweede meer utilitair beklemtoonde het economische en toeristische belang van streekproducten en gerechten voor de Franse provincies en regio’s.
Op een meer fundamenteel niveau versterken deze twee invalshoeken elkaar, evenwel wanneer ze de regionale keuken inschakelden in een discours dat gekenmerkt wordt door bezorgdheid en ongenoegen over de teloorgang van het Franse platteland en het verdwijnen van typische rurale tradities.


Eendracht maakt macht?

Unity makes strength? Culinary expressions of identity and power at the Brussels International Exhibition of 1935

This paper explores the complex semiotic meanings embedded in the choice and the representation of food served at the official banquets at the Brussels’ World Exhibition of 1935.
The aim is to investigate how food was used by the organizing elite as a political and diplomatic means of  expressing cultural identity, regional diversity and national unity. How did Belgium shape its national identity in this diplomatic arena? How did the country deal with the increasing tensions between the Flemish and Walloon linguistic communities? And to what extent do local economic factors possibly play a role in the
choice for certain ingredients or dishes?


Aardappelen met een “brave Nederlandse gehaktbal” en spruitjeslucht

Potatoes with a decent Dutch meatball and a whiff of sprouts air

The ‘bad’ Dutch cuisine and the tastelessness of ‘the Dutchman’, they form recognizable and seemingly self-evident elements of contemporary Dutch culture. Even in Dutch food historiography, this negative assessment of the Dutcheating habits is often repeated or even endorsed, while the construction of images underlying this myth
remains unquestioned. Therefore this article does focus on how culinary journalist Wina Born contributed to the creation and reproduction of this negative national self-image in her texts for the magazine Avenue between 1965 and 1980. During the major cultural and culinary changes of the sixties and seventies in the Netherlands Born was an important mediator between the growing middle class, ‘foreign foods’ and gastronomy.
In her texts for Avenue she developed a cosmopolitan and critical culinary discourse within which taste hierarchies were made and culinary capital was allocated to ingredients, restaurants and foreign cuisines. A qualitative analysis of her culinary
reports and reviews shows that within this discourse ‘the Netherlands’ always functioned as the unique ‘bad’ opposite of the refined and often ‘foreign’ eating habits she advised to her readers. In this way the article provides insight into the functioning
of the negative national self-image as strategy for social distinction. By rejecting the Dutch cuisine and the taste of ‘the Dutchman’, users of the self-image such as Born, show that they, in contrast to the average Dutch person, are able to distinguish what is
tasteful and what is not. In addition, the article shows the flexibility and longevity of the myth, because, even when the eating habits of the Dutch began to differentiate more in the seventies, the negative national selfimage retained its distinctive function in the culinary discourse of Born.


Investigating yhe history of meanongs of a dish

Hoe de betekenis van een gerecht doorheen de tijd verandert
Een enactivistische benadering van de biografie van de Russische salade in Bulgarije in de 20ste eeuw

Dit artikel onderzoekt de geschiedenis van het gerecht “Russische salade” en de betekenis ervan in Bulgarije in de 20ste eeuw, namelijk de opkomst ervan als een feestelijk gerecht met de status van een culinair icoon, overgenomen van modieuze Russische immigranten, waarna die status geleidelijk verloren  ging en het gerecht werd opgenomen in de doordeweekse lokale voedseltraditie. Om deze evolutie te verklaren past de auteur een voor food studies experimentele methode toe: de enactivistische theorie, die in de voorbije jaren door cognitieve filosofen werd ontwikkeld. Zij betoogt dat het niet-reducerende naturalistische kader van deze theorie
een antwoord kan bieden op tot nu toe ongrijpbare en belangrijke vragen, zoals de dynamiek van sociale praktijken en de rol van het lichaam bij de betekenisgeving.
Door de enactivistische benadering te gebruiken bij het bestuderen van de geschiedenis van de betekenissen van een gerecht, toont zij het potentieel ervan aan om het leven van sociale praktijken en autonomie van historische processen van
betekenisgeving te verklaren.


Bollen en boterkoeken

‘Boules’ and butter biscuits The heritagisation of two Dixmude specialties

Visit Flanders, the Flemish-Brussels Tourist Office, promotes ‘IJzerbollen’-
a kind of pastry with pudding – and ‘Boterkoeken’- buttery viennoiserie – as well known specialties from the small town of Diksmude in West-Flanders. As if they have always
existed and everybody associates them with Diksmude. That is not the case: ‘Boterkoeken’ enjoy a much wider fame than ‘IJzerbollen’. Research in cooking books, culinary periodicals, picture libraries and oral history deciphers how both sweets
became to be seen as heritage and hints on explaining the difference. Culinary identities are created, as are all identities. The association between a dish and a location is manmade. The creation of culinary identities is to be seen as heritagisation. That term is used to describe the process within which a community redefines the
meaning of (im)material heritage. That new meaning provides the community with an identity. The process often takes place in times of uncertainty and change, to create
a hold. In the case of food, a dish or an ingredient gets an addition referring to a place, home, or ‘better days in the past’. The context of the heritagisation is variable, as are the communities that act within the process. Conflicting identities are possible. Nothing is set forever. ‘Boterkoeken’ is a registered trademark since 1978. One determined
family of bakers took care of that registration. Since 1978 there has been nothing but continuity in the process of heritagisation. In the case of the ‘IJzerbollen’ the heritagisation community was far from close. At the same time, the heritagisation
timeline shows gaps: moments without the pastry as heritage. In 2011 the name ‘IJzerbollen’ got protection. That moment marked the humble start of the pastries renown. The power of a mark – in its widest sense – cannot be underestimated in the
process of heritagisation, as can’t a close and growing community and the continuity of the process.


Gebakkelei over de Geeraardsbergse mattentaart. De identiteitsconstructie en een streekproduct

Wrangling about the ”Geraardsbergse mattentaart”
The identity construction of a regional product

In this article the evolution of the identity construction of the ‘Geraardsbergse mattentaart’ is being analyzed. The authors explore the multiple, and often contradictory, histories and cultural dynamics instigated by this regional product.
After a short factual description of the local pie (and its recipe), they present
a historical sketch of the culture of the mattentaart, focusing on pivotal points in its evolution. In the second part, the authors analyze – on the basis of historical and journalistic sources, visual material and interviews – the discursive dynamics the mattentaart has initiated and the heritagisationstrategies operationalized to strengthen the identification claim on the product. The central question guiding their analysis is: How can a seemingly banal cake activate and invigorate an entire community and generate a never-ending stream of stories? It is argued whether precisely this processof heritagisation, which is surely applicable to other regional products,
constitutes the specificity of the culture of the mattentaart.


Pleidooi voor meerstemmigheid. Antwerpse Handjes en Jodenvervolging

A plea for multiperspectivity
The Antwerp Hand cookies and the persecution of Jews

Jos Hakker was an enterprising confectioner in the Provinciestraat in Antwerp in 1934 when he launched a new specialty: the Antwerp Handje. A box of Antwerp Hand cookies is the most famous tourist souvenir of the city of Antwerp today. When you
open a box of Antwerp Handjes, you discover – next to the cookies – the legend of the giant Antigoon who had lifted toll on the River Scheldt until the Roman soldier Brabo chopped off his hand … after which the city of Antwerp started to flourish thanks to free trade. Less known is the fact that Jos Hakker was of Jewish Dutch  origin and that he and his family were victims of the persecution of Jews during the Second World War.
This aspect of history has never been discussed in the broad marketing and communication concerning the Antwerp Handje. The marketing of regional products
asks for some multiperspectivity. All the more because the Antwerp Hands cookies became truly successful in the 1950s and 1960s, at a time when  even Jews who survived the war kept silent about the Holocaust. The reasons for this lack of attention for the inventor can be understood from this context, but today we think it is extremely relevant to tell not only the legend but also the story of Jos Hakker, and particularly the story of his persecution and his resilience as a Jew and a confectioner in Antwerp.
That is why we strongly suggest a new text in the brochure about the Antwerp Hand cookies.


Category: 2018, Summaries


LIESBETH GEUSSENS, Onroerende goederen – Emotionaliteit en betekenisgeving in -estamenten van Leuvense mannen en vrouwen, 1770-1780

Emotional goods Sensitivity and signification intestaments of Louvain men and women,1770-1780

Historians studying emotions have recently been using last wills to research the emotional implications of material culture and social networks. In this regard, this article
tries to show in what way and to which extent the citizens of Leuven who formulated their last will between 1770 and 1780, expressed their affections in these highly personal documents. The author has analysed the separate bequests and how they
are phrased, the beneficiaries and their relationship to the testator, and other stipulations, of which religious depositions are most important. This contribution shows that the Leuven  citizens of the late 18th century were indeed concerned with expressing emotions in their will. They did so in relation to both the objects they
bequeathed and the beneficiaries.
By governing the destination of their individualized possessions and by passing on family memory, the testators tried to uphold their own identity as well as the identity of the family.

Category: 2018, Summaries


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Thijs and the study of devo¬tional prints
The late professor Alfons Thijs was an expert in the field of devotional prints from Antwerp (17th-19th Cen¬turies). After his death the university library of Antwerp acquired more than 1.000 prints, related to the city. The library made its ‘Thijs Collec¬tion’ available on line opac/opacuactobj. The first part of this article stresses Thijs’ scientific research and publications and shows Thijs as a collector of all sorts of devotional prints. The second part is devoted to the history of the research of this print work. It starts with Adolf Spamer’s Das kleine Andachtsbild vom XIV. bis zum XX. Jahrhundert (1930). The first study dealing with Antwerp was published in the same year: Les images de dévotion anversoises du XVle au XIXe siècle by Emile Van Heurck. They mainly studied their object in a ‘rather’ traditionally historical way: printers, print methods, iconography, taxonomy and functions. Since the turn of the millennium and the rise of ‘material Christianity studies’ de¬votional prints are looked at in a new way: the focus is now on the function¬ing of the object in everyday life and in the construction of the religious identity of the user. The article closes off with the presentation of some new research results of this recent meth-odology.

Learning by attention
Visiting and commemorating the dead in the Aymara culture and the Low Countries
The text starts with a short compara¬tive reflection – commemorating the dead in the Low Countries versus what indigenous groups do in “the Andes”– and gradually concentrates on visiting and commemorating practices among Bolivian Aymara families, in order to reflect upon some philosophical-anthropological considerations about what social life might be, in its broad¬est sense. In a concrete way, this ar¬ticle is about their visiting, honouring and commemorating the dead (and in a certain way also being visited by them). It will show how “the social component” always is intimately en¬tangled with “the ecological element” in an ever-extending meshwork of life-embracing relations, much clear¬er than in our traditions. The article analyses how the Aymara carry on their lives –“socialize”– in intense and attentive ways, not only with their guiding ancestors but also, in a very related way, with other inhabitants and elements of the world, such as animals, sacred places and protecting mountains. This proposal also urges us to ask ourselves about the learning dynamics involved here: how people, through these visiting and com¬memorating practices, learn to cul¬tivate and cherish “attention” for the interwovenness of all life processes and for the way human life lines “cor¬ respond” with other lines of life. This “attention” is vital in many senses. Both questions, the entanglement of the social and the ecological elements and the education through attention-enhancing practices of exposure, can be asked about other places, such as Flanders and the Netherlands, taking into account the different contexts, elaborations and accentuations.

Ma’nene’ or how to keep the dead alive?
In this article the author brings us to Toraja, a mountainous area in South Sulawesi (Indonesia). The ancestral belief of the inhabitants led/leads to extensive funeral rites. The Dutch col¬onisation from the beginning of the 20th century onwards slowly but sure¬ly influenced these rituals. Still, the touristic scene discovered this place in the seventies and since then Toraja is a well visited region, due to these still extensive rituals, as the tourists are welcome at the burial feasts. Recently, tourists are now also visiting a ceremony that was largely a private matter. During the ma’nene’ ceremony the family of the deceased take the coffin out of the tomb to clean the grave. Meanwhile they open the coffin and give the mummified corpse new clothes, food and ciga¬rettes. At the end of the ceremony the coffin is put back in the grave. The fact that this kind of second funeral is being promoted as a touristic high¬light by the local touristic office can either be a danger or an opportunity for this ceremony.
The author explores how dark tourism and ma’nene’ can influence one another in a region where Christi¬ Christi-anity is the major religion, but where the inhabitants also keep up some of the ancestral rituals, closely connect¬ed to religion.

Intangible Heritage & The Muse¬um in an age of superdiversity
In this article the authors focus on the question of how museums can find new roles in a more (ethnically) diversified society. The challenge of what English sociologist Steven Ver¬tovec has called the challenge of su-perdiversity is huge. This refers to a new demographic reality, a diver¬sification of diversity in which city populations are more dynamic than ever before. Where until recently the challenge was mainly restricted to the integration of a limited group of mi¬grants in a dominant ‘white’ heritage discourse, we now see much more di-versification in which the notion of majority versus minority cultures is no longer relevant.
For the intangible heritage sec¬tor the focus on superdiversity opens new perspectives to interpret intan¬gible heritage from a more dynamic, global perspective – heritage that is always on the move and becomes meaningful in ever changing fluid contexts. This focus shows that intan¬gible heritage is NOT being carried by stable homogeneous groups, „dis¬tinct from the rest of society and lost in time”, as Ramon de la Combé once provocatively formulated it. Instead, heritage is about dynamics, flow and fusion. It is determined by multiple perspectives. For museums the focus on intan¬gible heritage may open ways of deal¬ing with superdiversity. The focus on intangible heritage implies a shift from ‘heritage preservation’ to ‘safe¬guarding heritage’ and ‘heritage in the making’, and a shift from ‘heritage of the past’ to ‘heritage in the present and future’ – for intangible heritage is by definition contemporary, dy¬namic culture. ‘Participatory collect¬ing’, ‘connecting people’, ‘listening to multiple networks around intangible heritage’ and ‘being part of these net¬works’ are the important key words. Through co-creations between museums and the bearers of intangi¬ble heritage museums can support the safeguarding of heritage while at the same time they will draw attention to the superdiversity of society. Co-creation offers opportunities to nego¬tiate intangible heritage among dif¬ferent stakeholders (amongst which the museums themselves) and to de¬velop heritage for the future. It is an open ended, experimental approach towards intangible heritage, for what we would like to call a network-labo¬ratory approach.

Category: 2018, Summaries


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Between taboo and tolerance
30 years of AIDS commemoration in the Netherlands
The article deals with the commemoration of AIDS during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It focuses on AIDS Memorial Quilts and the rituals related to them. The quilts were made to fight intolerance against AIDS and homosexuality and to shape a commemoration community. The successful control of the epidemic and the increase of tolerance led to a change from grief over the AIDS victims to the celebration of life. The quilts have lost their function. They are now given to several museums to represent the history of AIDS, AIDS commemoration and tolerance towards homosexuals in the Netherlands. The article raises the question in how far AIDS commemoration is related to nationalism in the Netherlands and images about ‘Dutchness’.

Everyday Humour in the Initial Years of the Dutch Revolt
In the opening years of the Dutch Revolt, in the 1560s and early 1570s circulating oral humour was a symbolic means to negotiate political norm changes. This kind humour created a Lachgemeinschaft, a laughing community among the Dutch people. Their laughter was based on the well-known traditions of joyfulness
on the ice and carnival upheaval as well as jokes on swaggering soldiers and impertinent artisans. The future was uncertain and carnivalesque symbols, jokes and travesties creating temporary powers were a boisterous means to test the rules of authority. But, this also caused friction and created particular laughing communities, for instance those of the gueux or beggars, the noblemen who in 1566 disputed with the governor general concerning the relaxation of the edicts on religious tolerance. Nevertheless, carnival humour was paramount and allowed for a playful investigation of temporary authority as a way to deal with uncertain political roads to take. Flemish drunkenness and jokes on a peasant farting in front of emperor Charles V were the illustrations of this comic worldview among the Dutch population, whatever their actual appreciation of the course of events. In the course of the 1570s, however, continued fighting and comic propaganda stirring up hate of the enemy prevailed and the Lachgemeinschaft of the Netherlanders fragmented and broke down.

Category: 2017, Summaries